Holantarctic Biokingdom

Encapsulated within this Biokingdom is all of the cold and temperate zones of the Southern Hemisphere. It also extends slightly into the subtropical zone. The biodiversity is not as rich as the Holarctic Biokingdom, but it nevertherless supports about 12 small endemic familes of vascular plants.


Fernandezian BioRegion

Included here is the Juan Fern√°ndez Islands (Alexander, Robinson Crusoe, Sant Clara and Selkirk) and the Desventuradas Islands (San Ambrosia and San Felix). The flora is rich in endemics with 20 endemic genera and two endemic familes (Lactoridaceae and Thyrosopteridaceae). The following bioprovince is recognised:



Chile-Patagonian BioRegion

This diverse BioRegion includes the extratropical parts of South America from the subtropical zones of Argentina to Tierra del Fuego. Also included are the Falkland Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, the South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, South Georgia Island, Isla de los Estados, Islas Diego Ramirez, and part of the Antarctic Peninsula including several adjoining islands such as Adelaide Island. The rich flora has many endemic or near endemic genera and eight endemic familes (Aextoxicaceae, Francoaceae, Gomortegaceae, Halophytaceae, Malesherbiaceae, Misodendraceae, Tribelaceae and Vivianiaceae). Much of the flora is derived from ancient Holantarctic elements but elements of Holarctic origin are also present. Within this BioRegion the following five bioprovinces are recognised:

Northern Chilean-Southern Peruvian Central Chilean Pampean Patagonian Magellanian


Atacama Desert in the Northern Chilean - Southerm Peruvian BioProvince of the Chile-Patagonian BioRegion (Copyright © 2010 Barbara Jones)


South Subantarctic Islands BioRegion

This BioRegion comprises the islands of Tristan da Cunha together with the Prince Edward Islands, the Crozet Islands, the Kerguelen Islands, Amsterdam Island, Gough Island, St Paul Island, Heard Island and McDonald Island. The region is a transitional zone between New Zealand and southern South America, but the flora is relatively poor with just two endemic genera (Lyallia and Pringlea), but in Tertiary times the pollen record shows that some of these islands supported Araucaria forests. Within this BioRegion the following two bioprovinces are recognised:

Tristan-Goughian Kerguelenian


Neozeylandic BioRegion

Comprising both the North and South islands of New Zealand this BioRegion also includes Stewart Island, Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island (including Ballis Pyramid), Chatham Island, Campbell Island, the Snares Islands, the Three Kings Islands, the Kermadoc Islands, the Antipodes Islands, and the Auckland Islands. The rich flora includes about 45 endemic genera but no endemic familes. Within this BioRegion the following eight bioprovinces are recognised but New Zealand has been provisionally divided into three sub-bioprovinces:

Lord Howean Norfolkian Kermedecian Neozeylandic Chathamian New Zealand Subantarctic Islands