Endemics in Family Order

Adoxaceae
Viburnum alnifolium

Amaryllidaceae
Allium cernuum
Allium tricoccum

Anacardiaceae
Rhus typhina

Annonaceae
Asimina triloba

Apiaceae
Angelica triquinata
Erigenia bulbosa
Pseudotaenidia montana
Taenidia integerrima
Taenidia montana

Aquifoliaceae
Ilex montana
Nemopanthus collinus

Araliaceae
Panax quinquefolium
Panax trifolium

Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochia iquitensis
Asarum canadense
Asarum shuttleworthii

Asparagaceae
Polygonatum pubescens

Asteraceae
Ageratina luciae-brauniae
Antennaria virginica
Aster schistosus
Coreopsis latifolia
Coreopsis pulchra
Eurybia avita
Eutrochium steelei
Helenium virginicum
Helianthus glaucophyllus
Helianthus laevigatus
Helianthus porteri
Krigia montana
Marshallia grandiflora
Nabalus roanensis
Packera antennariifolia
Packera millefolium
Packera schweinitziana
Polymnia johnbeckii
Prenanthes roanensis
Rugelia nudicaulis
Silphium brachiatum
Silphium mohrii
Solidago albopilosa
Solidago arguta var harrisii
Solidago glomerata
Solidigo spithamea

Berberidaceae
Berberis canadensis
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Diphylleia cymosa
Jeffersonia diphylla

Boraginaceae
Hydrophyllum appendiculatum
Phacelia fimbriata

Brassicaceae
Boechera serotina
Leavenworthia stylosa
Paysonia perforata
Paysonia stonensis

Burmanniaceae
Thismia americana

Cannabaceae
Celtis occidentalis

Caprifoliaceae
Diervilla rivularis
Diervilla sessilifolia

Caryophyllaceae
Minuartia cumberlandensis
Paronychia fastigiata var pumila
Silene rotundifolia

Celastraceae
Euonymus obovatus
Pachystima canbyi
Parnassia grandifolia

Clethraceae
Clethra acuminata

Convolvulaceae
Calystegia spithamae

Crassulaceae
Sedum pulsillum

Cyperaceae
Rhynchospora globularis var saxicola

Diapensiaceae
Pyxidanthera barbulata
Shortia galacifolia

Ericaceae
Chimaphila maculata
Eubotrys recurva
Gaylussacia brachycera
Leiophyllum buxifolium
Leucothoe fontanesianum
Menziesia pilosa
Monotropsis odorata
Pieris floribunda
Rhododendron arborescens
Rhododendron calendulaceum
Rhododendron catawbiense
Rhododendron cumberlandense
Rhododendron maximum
Rhododendron periclymenoides
Rhododendron prinophyllum
Vaccinium pallidum
Vaccinium erythrocarpum

Euphorbiaceae
Croton alabamensis
Crotonopsis elliptica

Fabaceae
Astragalus tennesseensis
Castanea dentata
Cladrastis kentuckea
Dalea gattingeri
Gymnocladus dioicus
Pediomelum subacaule
Robinia hispida
Robinia pseudoacacia
Robinia viscosa
Thermopsis mollis
Trifolium reflexum
Trifolium virginicum

Fagaceae
Castanea ozarkensis
Quercus georgiana

Hamamelidaceae
Fothergilla major
Hamamelis vernalis

Hypericaceae
Hypericum splendens
Triadenum virginicum

Isoetaceae
Isoetes melanospora
Isoetes tegetiformans

Juglandaceae
Juglans cinerea

Juncaceae
Juncus geogianus

Lamiaceae
Blephilia ciliata
Conradina verticillata
Meehania cordata
Pycnanthemum montanum
Synandra hispidula

Liliaceae
Clintonia umbellata
Lilium grayi
Prosartes lanuginosa
Prosartes maculata

Linaceae
Linum virginianum

Magnoliaceae
Magnolia acuminata
Magnolia fraseri

Malvaceae
Napaea dioica
Tilia americana
Tilia heterophylla

Melanthiaceae
Melanthium parviflorum
Melanthium woodii

Menispermaceae
Menispermum canadense

Montiaceae
Claytonia caroliniana
Claytonia virginica
Phemeranthus calcaricus

Moraceae
Maclura pomifera

Myricaceae
Comptonia peregrina

Oleaceae
Forestiera acuminata
Fraxinus quadrangulata

Onagraceae
Oenothera argillicola

Orobanchaceae
Afzelia macrophylla
Aureolaria grandiflora
Aureolaria laevigata
Aureolaria patula
Pedicularis furbishiae

Papaveraceae
Adlumia fungosa
Corydalis flavula
Dicentra canadensis
Dicentra cucullaria
Dicentra eximia
Stylophorum diphyllum

Pinaceae
Abies balsamea
Abies fraseri
Pinus pungens
Pinus rigida
Pinus virginiana
Tsuga canadensis
Tsuga caroliniana

Plantaginaceae
Collinsia verna
Leucospora multifida
Veronica glauca

Polemoniaceae
Phlox buckleyi

Polygonaceae
Eriogonum allenii

Portulacaceae
Portulaca smallii

Ranunculaceae
Aconitum columbianum
Aconitum reclinatum
Aconitum uncinatum
Actaea alba
Cimicifuga americana
Clematis albicoma
Clematis coactilis
Clematis viticaulis
Delphinium exaltatum
Delphinum tricorne
Hydrastis canadensis
Thalictrum mirabile
Trautvetteria carolinensis
Trollius laxus

Rosaceae
Aruncus dioicus
Gillenia stipulata
Gillenia trifoliata
Neviusia alabamensis
Prunus alleghaniensis
Spiraea virginiana
Waldsteinia fragaroides

Salicaceae
Populus grandidentata

Santalaceae
Buckleya distichophylla
Pyrularia pubera

Sapindaceae
Acer nigrum
Acer pensylvanicum
Acer saccharum
Aesculus glabra
Aesculus neglecta

Saxifragaceae
Astilbe biternata
Boykinia aconitifolia
Tiarella cordifolia

Staphyleaceae
Staphylea trifolia

Styracaceae
Halesia tetraptera

Theaceae
Stewartia ovata

Ulmaceae
Ulmus serotina
Ulmus thomasii

Urticaceae
Laportea canadensis

Violaceae
Hybanthus concolor


Endemics in Alphabetical Order

Abies balsamea
Abies fraseri
Acer nigrum
Acer pensylvanicum
Acer saccharum
Aconitum columbianum
Aconitum reclinatum
Aconitum uncinatum
Actaea alba
Adlumia fungosa
Aesculus glabra
Aesculus neglecta
Afzelia macrophylla
Ageratina luciae-brauniae
Allium cernuum
Allium tricoccum
Angelica triquinata
Antennaria virginica
Aristolochia iquitensis
Aruncus dioicus
Asarum canadense
Asarum shuttleworthii
Asimina triloba
Aster schistosus
Astilbe biternata
Astragalus tennesseensis
Aureolaria grandiflora
Aureolaria laevigata
Aureolaria patula
Berberis canadensis
Blephilia ciliata
Boechera serotina
Boykinia aconitifolia
Buckleya distichophylla
Calystegia spithamae
Castanea dentata
Castanea ozarkensis
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Celtis occidentalis
Chimaphila maculata
Cimicifuga americana
Cladrastis kentuckea
Claytonia caroliniana
Claytonia virginica
Clematis albicoma
Clematis coactilis
Clematis viticaulis
Clethra acuminata
Clintonia umbellata
Collinsia verna
Comptonia peregrina
Conradina verticillata
Coreopsis latifolia
Coreopsis pulchra
Corydalis flavula
Croton alabamensis
Crotonopsis elliptica
Dalea gattingeri
Delphinium exaltatum
Delphinum tricorne
Dicentra canadensis
Dicentra cucullaria
Dicentra eximia
Diervilla rivularis
Diervilla sessilifolia
Diphylleia cymosa
Erigenia bulbosa
Eriogonum allenii
Eubotrys recurva
Euonymus obovatus
Eurybia avita
Eutrochium steelei
Forestiera acuminata
Fothergilla major
Fraxinus quadrangulata
Gaylussacia brachycera
Gillenia stipulata
Gillenia trifoliata
Gymnocladus dioicus
Halesia tetraptera
Hamamelis vernalis
Helenium virginicum
Helianthus glaucophyllus
Helianthus laevigatus
Helianthus porteri
Hybanthus concolor
Hydrastis canadensis
Hydrophyllum appendiculatum
Hypericum splendens
Ilex montana
Isoetes melanospora
Isoetes tegetiformans
Jeffersonia diphylla
Juglans cinerea
Juncus geogianus
Krigia montana
Laportea canadensis
Leavenworthia stylosa
Leiophyllum buxifolium
Leucospora multifida
Leucothoe fontanesianum
Lilium grayi
Linum virginianum
Maclura pomifera
Magnolia acuminata
Magnolia fraseri
Marshallia grandiflora
Meehania cordata
Melanthium parviflorum
Melanthium woodii
Menispermum canadense
Menziesia pilosa
Minuartia cumberlandensis
Monotropsis odorata
Nabalus roanensis
Napaea dioica
Nemopanthus collinus
Neviusia alabamensis
Oenothera argillicola
Pachystima canbyi
Packera antennariifolia
Packera millefolium
Packera schweinitziana
Panax quinquefolium
Panax trifolium
Parnassia grandifolia
Paronychia fastigiata var pumila
Paysonia perforata
Paysonia stonensis
Pedicularis furbishiae
Pediomelum subacaule
Phacelia fimbriata
Phemeranthus calcaricus
Phlox buckleyi
Pieris floribunda
Pinus pungens
Pinus rigida
Pinus virginiana
Polygonatum pubescens
Polymnia johnbeckii
Populus grandidentata
Portulaca smallii
Prenanthes roanensis
Prosartes lanuginosa
Prosartes maculata
Prunus alleghaniensis
Pseudotaenidia montana
Pycnanthemum montanum
Pyrularia pubera
Pyxidanthera barbulata
Quercus georgiana
Rhododendron arborescens
Rhododendron calendulaceum
Rhododendron catawbiense
Rhododendron cumberlandense
Rhododendron maximum
Rhododendron periclymenoides
Rhododendron prinophyllum
Rhus typhina
Rhynchospora globularis var saxicola
Robinia hispida
Robinia pseudoacacia
Robinia viscosa
Rugelia nudicaulis
Sedum pulsillum
Shortia galacifolia
Silene rotundifolia
Silphium brachiatum
Silphium mohrii
Solidago albopilosa
Solidago arguta var harrisii
Solidago glomerata
Solidigo spithamea
Spiraea virginiana
Staphylea trifolia
Stewartia ovata
Stylophorum diphyllum
Synandra hispidula
Taenidia integerrima
Taenidia montana
Thalictrum mirabile
Thermopsis mollis
Thismia americana
Tiarella cordifolia
Tilia americana
Tilia heterophylla
Trautvetteria carolinensis
Triadenum virginicum
Trifolium reflexum
Trifolium virginicum
Trollius laxus
Tsuga canadensis
Tsuga caroliniana
Ulmus serotina
Ulmus thomasii
Vaccinium pallidum
Vaccinium erythrocarpum
Veronica glauca
Viburnum alnifolium
Waldsteinia fragaroides


Summary

Apart from the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plain, this zone includes a large part of the eastern United States. In the north it extends into southern Canada to include southeastern Ontario and southern Quebec while in the south it extends to central Georgia, central Alabama, parts of eastern Texas and includes much of Arkansas. Its western boundary extends to Minnesota, eastern Iowa, the Ozark Plateau and the Quachita Mountains.

Endemic and near endemic vascular plants so far recorded for this zone include 200 species in 150 genera and 63 families but there are no endemic genera or families. However, the Hamamelidaceae use to be much more widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere during the Upper Cretaceous and early Tertiary. Many species became extinct during the Ice Age but a number survived in tropical and subtropical mountains and in the Caucasus region.

References

Estill, J. C. & Cruzan, M. B. 2001. Phytogeography of rare plant species endemic to the southeastern United States. Castanea, 66: 3-23.

Keener, C. S. 1983. Distribution and biohistory of the endemic flora of the Mid-Appalachian Shale Barrens. The Botanical Review, 49: 65-115.

Pittillo, J. D. & Smathers, G. A. 1979. Phytogeography of the Balsam Mountains and Pisgah Ridge, Southern Appalachian Mountains. In: Contributions to the knowledge of flora and vegetation in the Carolinas. Eds. H. Leith and E. Landolt. VGI Zurich.

Qian, H. 1999. Floristic analysis of vascular plant genera of North America north of Mexico: characterization and phytogeography.  Journal of Biogeography, 26: 1307-1321.

Zhi-yun, Z. & An-ming, L. 1995. Hamamelidaceae: Geographic distribution, fossil history and origin. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 33: 313–339.