Included here is the area that extends from the northwest and northern parts of the Iberian Peninsula (including the Pyrenees) north to include Great Britain and Ireland and on to the western shores of Norway as far north as the islands of Hitra and Froga. On the European mainland, the Armorican Massif, the Aquitanian and Parisian Basins, the Central Massif, and most of the German lowlands are included.
Of the endemic plants so far recorded there are about 1136 species, subspecies and varieties in 193 genera and 53 families. There are 3 endemic genera (marked red) but no endemic families.
However, the species of certain genera, including Alchemilla, Euphrasia, Hieracium, Limonium, Rubus, Sorbus and Taraxacum, are classed as apomictic (undergoing asexual reproduction) so not regarded as fully developed species by some authorities and as a consequence given the name microspecies.
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Gomez, D., Sese, J. A. & Villar. L. 2003. The Vegetation of the Alpine Zone in the Pyrenees. In: Alpine Biodiversity in Europe. Eds. L. Nagy, G.Grabherr, Ch. Korner; & D.B.A. Thompson. Ecological Studies, Vol. 167. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
McCosh, D. J. & Rich, T. C. G. 2011. Atlas of British and Irish Hawkweeds (Pilosella Hill and Hieracium L.). Botanical Society of the British Isles, London in association with National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.
Montserrat, P. & Villar, L. 1987. The vegetation and endemic flora of the Spanish Pyrenees. Excursion no. 41. Excursion Guide, XIV International Botanical Congress, Berlin.
Rich, T. C. G., Hutchinson, G., Randall, R. D. & Ellis, R. G. 1999. List of plants endemic to the British Isles. BSBI News, 80: 23-27.
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Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine,D. H., Walters S. M., & Webb, D. A.(Editors). 2010. Flora Europaea. Five Volume Set. Cambridge University Press.
Villar, L. undated. El Elemento Endémico en la Flora del Pirineo Occidental Español. Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologla. 22700 JACA (Huesca).
Villar, L & Garcia B. 1989. Vers une Banque de Donns des Plantes Vasculaires Endemiques des Pyrenees. Acta Biologica Montana, IX: 261-274Villar, L., Sesé, J. A., Goni, D., Fernandez, J. V., Guzman, D. & Catalan, P. 1997. Sur La Flore Endémique et Menacée Des Pyrénées (Aragon et Navarre). Lagascalia, 19: 673-684.