Included here is Brazil’s Provinca de la Caatinga and includes the highlands of northeastern Brazil. It extends from Turiacu south to the southern boundary of the state of Espirito Santo. Caatinga is a term that was used by indigenous people to describe open forest or white forest.
Of the endemic and near endemic vascular plants so far recorded there are about 457 endemic species, subspecies, varieties in 189 genera and 48 families. There are 42 endemic genera (marked red) but no endemic families. However, Martyniaceae is restricted to the New World.
Paganucci de Queiroz, L. 2006. The Brazilian Caatinga: Phytogeographical Patterns Inferred from the Data of the Leguminosae. In: Neotropical Savannas and Seasonally Dry Forests. Plant Diversity, Biogeography, and Conservation. Eds. R. T. Pennington, G. P. Lewis and J. A. Ratter. Taylor & Francis.
Reis, A. M. S., Araújo, E. L., Ferraz, E. M. N. & Moura, A. N. 2006. Inter-annual variations in the floristic and population structure of an herbaceous community of “caatinga” vegetation in Pernambuco, Brazil. Revista Brasileira De Botanica, 29: 497-508.
Rocha, P. L. B. da., Queiroz, L. P. de. & Pirani, J. R. 2004. Plant species and habitat structure in a sand dune field in the Brazilian Caatinga: a homogenous habitat harbouring an endemic biota. Revista Brasiliera de Botânica, 27: 1-19.