Global Biozone Classification

Holarctic Biokingdom

Circumboreal Bioregion

Biozones
Altai-Sayan
Arctic
Atlantic European
Central European
Eastern European
Northern European
Balkan
Caucasian
Euxinic
Middle Siberian
Northeastern Siberian
Western Siberian
Okhotske-Kamchatkan
Transbaikalian
Canadian

Eastern Asiatic Bioregion

Biozones
Central Chinese
Eastern Himalayan
Japanese-Korean
Khasi-Manipurian
Manchurian 
Northern Myanmarian
Northern Chinese 
Ryukyuan
Sakhalin-Hokkaido
Sikang-Yunnan
Southeastern Chinese
Taiwanese
Volcano-Bonin

North American Atlantic Bioregion

Biozones
Appalachian
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain
North American Prairies

Rocky Mountain Bioregion

Biozones
Vancouverian
Rocky Mountains

Macaronesian Bioregion

Biozones
Azorean
Canarian
Cape Verdean
Madeiran

Mediterranean Bioregion

Biozones
Adriatic
Balearic
Crimean
East Mediterranean
South Mediterranean
Southwestern Mediterranean
Iberian
Liguro-Tyrrhenian
South Moroccan

Saharo-Arabian Bioregion

Biozones
Egyptian-Arabian
Saharan

Irano-Turanian Bioregion

Biozones                       
Armeno-Iranian
Central Anatolian
Central Tien Shan
Dzungaro-Tien Shan
Hyrcanian
Mesopotamian
Mongolian
Northern Baluchistanian
Tibetian
Turanian
Turkestanian
Western Himalayan

Madrean Bioregion

Biozones
Californian
Great Basin
Mexican Highlands
Sonoran

Paleotropic Biokingdom

Guineo-Congolian Bioregion

Biozones
Congolian
Nigerian-Cameroonian
Upper Guinean

Uzambara-Zululand Bioregion

Biozones
Tongoland-Pondoland
Zanzibar-Inhambane

Zambezian Bioregion

Biozone
Zambezian

Sahelo-Sudanian Bioregion

Biozones
Sahelian
Sudanian

Eritreo-Arabian Bioregion

Biozones
Socotran
Somalo-Ethiopian
Arabian
South Arabian

Omano-Sindian Bioregion

Biozones
Omanian
Sindian
South Iranian

Karoo-Namib Bioregion

Biozones
Namibian
Namalandian
Western Cape
Karoo

St Helena and Ascension Bioregion

Biozone
St Helenan and Ascension

Madagascan Bioregion

Biozones
Eastern Madagascan
Western Madagascan
South-Southwest Madagascan
Comoran
Mascarenean
Seychellean

Indian Bioregion

Biozones
Bengalian
Deccan
Malabar
Sri Lankan
Upper Gangetic Plain

Indochinese Bioregion

Biozones
Andamanese
Annamese
North Indochinese
South Indochinese
South Myanmarian (Burmese)
South Chinese
Thailandian

Malesian Bioregion

Biozones
Bornean
Malayan
Philippinean
South Malesian
Sumatran

Papuan Bioregion

Biozones
Bismarckian
Malukuan (Moluccan)
Papuan
Sulawesian

Fijian Bioregion

Biozones
Fijian
Vanuatuan (New Hebrides)

Polynesian Bioregion

Biozones
Micronesian
Polynesian

Hawaiian Bioregion

Biozone
Hawaiian

Neocaledonian Bioregion

Biozone
Neocaledonian

Neotropic Biokingdom

Caribbean Bioregion

Biozones
Central American
Chocoan
Cocos Island
Galapagean
West Indian

Guayana Highlands Bioregion

Biozone
Guayanan Highlands

Amazonian Bioregion

Biozones
Amazonian
Llanos

Brazilian Bioregion

Biozones
Atlantic
Caatingan
Cerradoan
Chacoan
Paranan

Andean Bioregion

Biozones
Central Andean
Northern Andean

Cape Biokingdom

Cape Bioregion

Biozone
Capensis (Cape)

Australian Biokingdom

Northeastern Australian Bioregion

Biozones
Northern Australian
Queenslandian
Southeast Australian
Tasmanian

Southwest Australian Bioregion

Biozone
Southwest Australian

Central Australian Bioregion

Biozone
Eremaean (Central Australian)

Holantarctic Biokingdom

Fernandezian Bioregion

Biozone
Fernandezian

Chile-Patagonian Bioregion

Biozones
Central Chilean
North Chilean-South Peruvian
Magellanic
Pampean
Patagonian

South Subantarctic Islands Bioregion

Biozones
Tristan-Goughian
Kerguelenian

Neozeylandic Bioregion

Biozones
Chathamian
Kermedecian
Lord Howean
Neozeylandic
New Zealand Subantarctic Islands
Norfolkian

 


Biozones in Alphabetical Order

Adriatic
Afro-Alpine
Aldabran
Alpine (Alps)
Altai-Sayan
Amazonian
Andalucian
Andamanese
Andean
Annamese
Apoi Mountain (Hokkaido)
Appalachian
Arabian
Arctic
Armeno-Iranian
Ascension Island
Atlantic (South America)
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain
Atlantic European
Australian (Generic Endemics)
Australian (Non-Generic Endemics)
Azorean
Balearic
Balkan
Barbadian
Belizean
Bengalian
Bermudian
Bismarckian
Bornean
British
Caatingan 
Californian
Cameroon Mountain
Canadian
Canarian
--El Hierro
--Fuerteventura
--Gran Canaria
--La Gomera
--La Palma
--Lanzarote
--Tenerife
Cape Verdean
Capensis (South Africa)
Carolinian (Caroline Islands)
Carpathian
Caucasian
Central American
Central Anatolian
Central Andean
Central Australian
Central Chinese
Central European
Central Tien Shan
Cerradoan (South American)
Chacoan (South American)
Channel Islands (California)
Chathamian
Chilean
Chinese
Chocoan
Christmas Island
Chuukese (Chuuk:Micronesia)
Cocos Island (Costa Rica)
Colombian
Comoran
Congolian
Cook Islands
Costa Rican
Cretan
Crimean
Cyprian
Deccan (Indian)
Death Valley
Dzungaro-Tien Shan
Eastern Arc Mountains
Eastern European
Eastern Himalayan
Eastern Madagascan
Eastern Mediterranean
Egyptian-Arabian
El Hierroian
Ethiopian
Euxinic
Evvian
Falklandian (Falkland Islands)
Fernandezian
Fijian
Floridian
Fuerteventurian
Galapagean
Gangetic (Upper Gangetic Plain)
Gilbertese (Gilbert Islands)
Gran Canarian
Great Basin (North America)
Guadalupe Island (Mexico)
Guamanian (Guam Islands)
Guatemalan
Guayanan (Highlands)
Gulf of California Islands
Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Is)
Hainanian
Hawaiian
Henderson Island
Hezar Mountain (Iran)
Himalayan
Hongkongese
Hyrcanian
Iberian
Indian
Israelian
Italian (mainland)
Japanese-Korean
Javanese
Karoo
Kenyan
Kerguelenian
Kermedecian
Khasi-Manipurian
La Gomerian
La Palmian
Lanzarotian
Lesser Antillean
Lesser Sunda Islands
Liguro-Tyrrhenian
Line Islands
Llanos (South America)
Lord Howean
Madagascan
Madeiran
Magellanic
Malabar
Malayan
Maltese
Malukuan (Maluku/Moluccan)
Manchurian 
Marianas (Mariana Islands)
Marquesan
Marshall Islands
Mediterranean
Mascarenean
Mesopotamian
Mexican Highlands
Micronesian
Middle Siberian
Mongolian
Moroccan
Namalandian
Namibian
Neocaledonian
Neozeylandic
New Zealand Subantarctic Islands
Nigerian-Cameroonian
Norfolkian
North American Prairies
North Indochinese
Northern Australian
Northeastern Siberian
Northern Andean
Northern Baluchistanian
North Chilean-South Peruvian
Northern Chinese 
Northern European
Northern Myanmarian (Burmese)
Okhotske-Kamchatkan
Olympic Peninsula (US)
Omanian
Palauan (Micronesia)
Pampean
Papuan
Paranan
Patagonian
Philippinean
Pitcairnian
Pohnpeian (Micronesia)
Polynesian
Pondolandian
Puerto Rican
Pyrenean
Queenslandian
Rocky Mountains
Ryukyuan (Ryukyu Islands)
Saharan
Sahelian
Sakhalin-Hokkaidoan
Samoan
São Toméan and Príncipean
Sardinian
Seychellean
Shetlandic (Shetland Islands)
Siberian
Sicilian
Sikang-Yunnan
Sindian
Socotran
Somalian
Somalo-Ethiopian
Sonoran
South African
South Arabian
South Chinese
South Indochinese
South Iranian
South Malesian
South Mediterranean
South Moroccan
South Myanmarian (Burmese)
Southeast Australian
Southeastern Chinese
South-Southwestern Madagascan
Southwest Australian
Southwestern Mediterranean
Sri Lankan
St Helenan and Ascension
St Lucian
Sudanian
Sulawesian
Sumatran
Taiwanese
Tanzanian
Tasmanian
Tenerifian
Thailandian
Tibetian
Tobagian
Tongan (Tonga Islands)
Tongoland-Pondoland
Transbaikalian
Trinidadian
Tristan-Goughian
Turanian
Turkestanian
Upper Guinean
Vancouverian
Vanuatuan (New Hebrides)
Volcano-Bonin
West Indian
Western Cape (Africa)
Western Himalayan
Western Madagascan
Western Siberian
Yapese (Yap Islands)
Zambezian
Zanzibar-Inhambane
Zeravshan Mountains (Tajikistan)

 


Summary

The plan here is to provide checklists of endemic vascular plants for all major biogeographic zones. Sites with links to completed or partially completed lists are in blue. Others are either in the pipeline or awaiting further information.

The information is summarized in alphabetical order in Table 1 and in descending order of endemic taxa in Table 2. However, it is not possible to make meaningful comparisons between many of the biozones in their current form but further analysis is planned. Clearly, however, Australia and Atlantic Forests of South America have amazing levels of endemism.

So why the emphasis on endemic species? Endemic simply means confined to a certain geographical area. You could say that human beings are endemic to planet earth. On the other hand, very few if any species have global distributions; most are confined to certain areas, which could be a continent, an island or even a particular mountain top, but many endemics are concentrated into so-called centres of endemism. The biogeographic areas defined in this website, such as the Hawaiian Islands or the Rocky Mountains, are all regarded as centres of endemism. However, the important point is that endemic or geographically restricted species are inherently more vulnerable to extinction than more widespread species, and are especially vulnerable to habitat loss or fragmentation. It is estimated that about three-quarters of the species of plants and animals that are known to have become extinct during the past few centuries were endemic to small areas particularly islands.

References

Bowen, L. & Vuren, D. V. 1997. Insular endemic plants lack defenses against herbivores. Conservation Biology, 11: 1249-1254.

Isik, K. 2011. Rare and endemic species: why are they prone to extinction? Turkish Journal of Botany, 35: 411-417.