Endemics in Family Order

Amaryllidaceae
Allium candolleanum
Allium graciliensis
Allium olympicum
Galanthus plicatus ssp byzantinus

Apiaceae
Agasyllis
Agasyllis caucasica
Anthriscus schumalhauenii
Astrantia pontica
Bupleurum rischawii
Chymsydia
Chymsydia agasylloides
Heracleum platytaenium
Heracleum scabrum
Ligusticum physospermifolium
Mutellina caucasica
Pastinaca aurantiaca
Peucedanum chryseum
Pimpinella idae
Scaligeria lazica
Seseli foliosum
Seseli rupicola

Apocynaceae
Vinca pubescens

Aquifoliaceae
Ilex colchica

Araceae
Arum euxinum

Araliaceae
Hedera colchica

Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochia pontica

Asparagaceae
Muscari alpanicum
Muscari armeniacum
Muscari aucheri
Muscari dolichanthum
Muscari pendulum
Polygonatum obtusifolium
Pseudomuscari coeleste

Aspleniaceae
Asplenium cuneifolium ssp woronowii
Asplenium hermannii-christii

Asteraceae
Amphoricarpos elegans
Anthemis woronowii
Centaurea abchasica
Centaurea albovii
Centaurea appendicigera
Centaurea barbeyi
Centaurea dealbata
Centaurea helenioides
Centaurea hypoleuca
Centaurea kolakovskyi
Cirsium adjaricum
Cirsium pseudopersonata
Cirsium sommieri
Cirsium trachylepis
Crepis pterocaula
Doronicum balansae
Doronicum macrolepis
Doronicum tobeyi
Hieracium asterodermum
Hieracium gentiliforme
Hieracium sparsum
Inula magnifica
Iranecio lazicus
Psephellus colchicus
Senecio trapezunticus
Tragopogon aureus
Tripleurospermum monticolum

Berberidaceae
Epimedium pinnatum ssp colchicum

Betulaceae
Betula medwedewii
Betula megrelica
Corylus avellana var pontica
Corylus colchica

Boraginaceae
Alkanna cordifolia
Alkanna haussknechtii
Echium orientale
Megacaryon
Megacaryon armenum
Myosotis lazica
Nonea karsensis
Nonea pulmonarioides
Omphalodes cappadocica
Omphalodes caucasica
Omphalodes kusnetzovii
Onosma affinis
Onosma ambigens
Onosma arcuata
Onosma bozakmannii
Onosma circinnata
Onosma laparioides
Onosma lineariloba
Onosma nigricaulis
Onosma obtusifolia
Onosma paphlagonica
Onosma subulifolia
Onosma velutina
Paracaryum artvinense
Paracaryum corymbitforme
Paracaryum erysimifolium
Paracaryum leptophyllum
Paracaryum montbretii
Symphytum asperum
Symphytum bornmeulleri
Symphytum longipetiolatum
Symphytum savvalense
Symphytum sylvaticum
Trachystemon orientalis

Brassicaceae
Aethionema caespitosum
Alyssum artvinense
Alyssum bornmuelleri
Arabis allionii
Arabis colchica
Arabis drabiformis
Arabis nordmanniana
Arabis sachokiana
Aubrieta olympica
Barbarea integrifolia
Barbarea platycarpa
Clypeola raddeana
Draba hispida
Draba rigida
Draba subsecunda
Erysimum amasianum
Erysimum contractum
Erysimum deflexum
Hesperis microcalyx
Hesperis stellata
Noccaea sintenisii
Pachyphragma
Pachyphragma macrophyllum
Pseudosempervivum sintenisii
Thlaspi lilacinum

Buxaceae
Buxus colchica

Campanulaceae
Campanula calcarea
Campanula collina
Campanula dzaaku
Campanula dzyschrica
Campanula glomerata ssp panjutinii
Campanula jadvigae
Campanula kluchorica
Campanula kolakovskyi
Campanula lazica
Campanula makaschvilii
Campanula mirabilis
Campanula paradoxa
Campanula saxonorum
Campanula sibirica ssp longistyla
Campanula sphaerocarpa
Campanula symphytifolia
Jasione supina ssp pontica

Caprifoliaceae
Cephalaria anatolica
Cephalaria calcarea
Cephalaria paphlagonica
Knautia byzantina
Knautia degenii
Lonicera caucasica
Scabiosa balianii
Scabiosa olgae

Caryophyllaceae
Cerastium armeniacum
Cerastium gnaphalodes
Cerastium lazicum
Dianthus carmelitarum
Dianthus imereticus
Dianthus kastembeluensis
Gypsophila glandulosa
Minuartia abchasica
Minuartia rhodocalyx
Silene boissieri
Silene lazica
Silene physocalyx

Colchicaceae
Colchicum liparochiadys

Crassulaceae
Sedum hispanicum
Sempervivum armenum
Sempervivum furseorum
Sempervivum gillianii
Sempervivum minus var glabrum
Sempervivum minus var minus
Sempervivum staintonii

Cyperaceae
Carex latifrons
Carex mingrelica
Carex pontica
Cyperus tremulus var colchicus
Rhynchospora caucasica

Dioscoreaceae
Dioscorea caucasica

Dryopteridaceae
Dryopteris liliana

Ericaceae
Epigaea gaultherioides
Rhododendron smirnowii
Rhododendron ungernii
Rhodothamnus sessillifolius

Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp robbiae

Fabaceae
Astragalus adzharicus
Astragalus bachmarensis
Astragalus czorochensis
Astragalus humillimus
Astragalus lineatus fo jildisianus
Astragalus viridissimus
Dorycnium graecum
Lathyrus karsianus
Lathyrus rotundifolius ssp undulatus
Lathyrus tukhtensis
Trifolium caudatum
Trifolium euxinum
Trifolium pannonicum
Trifolium polyphyllum
Trifolium sintenisii
Vicia freyniana

Fagaceae
Quercus hartwissiana
Quercus imeretina
Quercus pontica

Geraniaceae
Geranium asphodeloides ssp sintenisii

Hypericaceae
Hypericum bithynicum
Hypericum xylosteifolium

Iridaceae
Crocus aerius
Crocus autranii
Crocus scharojanii
Crocus vallicola
Siphonostylis lazica

Juncaceae
Luzula pseudosudetica

Lamiaceae
Ballota rotundifolia
Betonica abchasica
Lamium galactophyllum
Lamium garganicum var armenum
Lamium gundelsheimeri
Lamium leucolophum
Lamium ponticum
Lamium sulfureum
Lamium veronicifolium
Phlomis russeliana
Salvia forskahlei
Salvia huberi
Salvia tobeyi
Satureja bzybica
Satureja isophylla
Scutellaria helenae
Scutellaria pontica
Sideritis amasiaca
Sideritis armeniaca
Sideritis dichotoma
Sideritis germanicopolitana
Stachys bayburtensis
Stachys huber-morathii
Stachys macrophylla
Stachys rizeensis
Stachys sosnowskyi
Stachys trapezuntea
Teucrium multinodum
Teucrium trapezunticum
Thymus artvinicus

Liliaceae
Lilium monadelphum var armenum
Lilium pyrenaicum ssp ponticum
Platyruscus colchicus
Othocallis monanthos
Othocallis winogradowii

Linaceae
Linum tauricum

Lythraceae
Trapa colchica

Malvaceae
Alcea abchasica
Hibiscus ponticus
Tilia rubra

Nartheciaceae
Narthecium balansae

Oleaceae
Osmanthus decorus

Onagraceae
Epilobium anatolicum

Orchidaceae
Dactylorhiza osmanica
Dactylorhiza urvilleana ssp bithynica
Epipactis persica ssp pontica
Orchis patens var viridifusca

Orobanchaceae
Melampyrum alboffianum
Necranthus orobanchoides
Orobanche armena
Pedicularis olympica
Rhamphicarpa medwedewii

Paeoniaceae
Paeonia macrophylla
Paeonia wittmanniana

Papaveraceae
Corydalis alpestris
Corydalis vittae
Papaver lateritium
Papaver macrostomum var tubuliferum
Papaver pilosum

Phyllanthaceae
Leptopus chinensis

Pinaceae
Abies nordmanniana var bornmuelleriana
Abies nordmanniana ssp nordmanniana
Picea orientalis

Plantaginaceae
Digitalis ferruginea
Linaria genistifolia
Linaria sintenisii
Veronica allahuekberensis
Veronica fuchsii
Veronica monticola
Veronica oltensis
Veronica siaretensis
Veronica turrilliana

Plumbaginaceae
Acantholimon hypochaerum

Polygalaceae
Polygala anatolica

Primulaceae
Cyclamen colchicum
Cyclamen parviflorum ssp subalpinum
Primula abchasica
Primula longipes
Primula megaseifolia
Sredinskya
Sredinskya grandis

Ranunculaceae
Aquilegia colchica
Delphinium formosum
Ranunculus bulbosus ssp aleae
Ranunculus dissectus
Ranunculus tempskyanus

Rhamnaceae
Rhamnus imeretina

Rosaceae
Alchemilla armeniaca
Alchemilla bornmuelleri
Alchemilla bursensis
Alchemilla ciminensis
Alchemilla citrina
Alchemilla erzincanensis
Alchemilla hirsutiflora
Alchemilla orduensis
Alchemilla oriturcica
Alchemilla parapersica
Alchemilla plicatissima
Alchemilla rizensis
Alchemilla sintenisii
Alchemilla tiryalensis
Alchemilla ziganadagensis
Cerasus hippophaeoides
Crataegus tanacetifolia
Potentilla armeniaca
Potentilla buccoana
Potentilla cappadocica
Potentilla doddsii
Potentilla savvalensis
Pyrus balansae
Rosa boissieri
Rosa pisiformis
Rosa woronowii
Rubus discolor
Rubus tomentosus var canescens
Sorbus colchica

Rubiaceae
Asperula involucrata
Asperula pestalozzae
Asperula suavis
Asperula virgata

Sapindaceae
Acer cappadocicum var stenocarpum
Acer divergens

Saxifragaceae
Saxifraga abchasica
Saxifraga artvinensis

Scrophulariaceae
Scrophularia capillaris
Scrophularia paphlagonica
Scrophularia sosnowskyi
Scrophularia subaequiloba
Verbascum abieticolum
Verbascum artvinense
Verbascum bracteosum
Verbascum decursivum
Verbascum drymophiloides
Verbascum eriocarpum
Verbascum eriorrhabdon
Verbascum freynii
Verbascum gracilescens
Verbascum lachnopus
Verbascum myrianthum
Verbascum olympicum
Verbascum ponticum
Verbascum pseudovarians
Verbascum spectabile
Verbascum sphenandroides
Verbascum transcaucasicum
Verbascum wiedemannianum

Staphyleaceae
Staphylea colchica

Thymelaeaceae
Daphne pontica

Ulmaceae
Zelkova carpinifolia

Violaceae
Viola odontocalycina
Viola orthoceras


Endemics in Alphabetical Order

Abies nordmanniana ssp nordmanniana
Abies nordmanniana var bornmuelleriana
Acantholimon hypochaerum
Acer cappadocicum var stenocarpum
Acer divergens
Aethionema caespitosum
Agasyllis
Agasyllis caucasica
Alcea abchasica
Alchemilla armeniaca
Alchemilla bornmuelleri
Alchemilla bursensis
Alchemilla ciminensis
Alchemilla citrina
Alchemilla erzincanensis
Alchemilla hirsutiflora
Alchemilla orduensis
Alchemilla oriturcica
Alchemilla parapersica
Alchemilla plicatissima
Alchemilla rizensis
Alchemilla sintenisii
Alchemilla tiryalensis
Alchemilla ziganadagensis
Alkanna cordifolia
Alkanna haussknechtii
Allium candolleanum
Allium graciliensis
Allium olympicum
Alyssum artvinense
Alyssum bornmuelleri
Amphoricarpos elegans
Anthemis woronowii
Anthriscus schumalhauenii
Aquilegia colchica
Arabis allionii
Arabis colchica
Arabis drabiformis
Arabis nordmanniana
Arabis sachokiana
Aristolochia pontica
Arum euxinum
Asperula involucrata
Asperula pestalozzae
Asperula suavis
Asperula virgata
Asplenium cuneifolium ssp woronowii
Asplenium hermannii-christii
Astragalus adzharicus
Astragalus bachmarensis
Astragalus czorochensis
Astragalus humillimus
Astragalus lineatus fo jildisianus
Astragalus viridissimus
Astrantia pontica
Aubrieta olympica
Ballota rotundifolia
Barbarea integrifolia
Barbarea platycarpa
Betonica abchasica
Betula medwedewii
Betula megrelica
Bupleurum rischawii
Buxus colchica
Campanula calcarea
Campanula collina
Campanula dzaaku
Campanula dzyschrica
Campanula glomerata ssp panjutinii
Campanula jadvigae
Campanula kluchorica
Campanula kolakovskyi
Campanula lazica
Campanula makaschvilii
Campanula mirabilis
Campanula paradoxa
Campanula saxonorum
Campanula sibirica ssp longistyla
Campanula sphaerocarpa
Campanula symphytifolia
Carex latifrons
Carex mingrelica
Carex pontica
Centaurea abchasica
Centaurea albovii
Centaurea appendicigera
Centaurea barbeyi
Centaurea dealbata
Centaurea helenioides
Centaurea hypoleuca
Centaurea kolakovskyi
Cephalaria anatolica
Cephalaria calcarea
Cephalaria paphlagonica
Cerastium armeniacum
Cerastium gnaphalodes
Cerastium lazicum
Cerasus hippophaeoides
Chymsydia
Chymsydia agasylloides
Cirsium adjaricum
Cirsium pseudopersonata
Cirsium sommieri
Cirsium trachylepis
Clypeola raddeana
Colchicum liparochiadys
Corydalis alpestris
Corydalis vittae
Corylus avellana var pontica
Corylus colchica
Crataegus tanacetifolia
Crepis pterocaula
Crocus aerius
Crocus autranii
Crocus scharojanii
Crocus vallicola
Cyclamen colchicum
Cyclamen parviflorum ssp subalpinum
Cyperus tremulus var colchicus
Dactylorhiza osmanica
Dactylorhiza urvilleana ssp bithynica
Daphne pontica
Delphinium formosum
Dianthus carmelitarum
Dianthus imereticus
Dianthus kastembeluensis
Digitalis ferruginea
Dioscorea caucasica
Doronicum balansae
Doronicum macrolepis
Doronicum tobeyi
Dorycnium graecum
Draba hispida
Draba rigida
Draba subsecunda
Dryopteris liliana
Echium orientale
Epigaea gaultherioides
Epilobium anatolicum
Epimedium pinnatum ssp colchicum
Epipactis persica ssp pontica
Erysimum amasianum
Erysimum contractum
Erysimum deflexum
Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp robbiae
Galanthus plicatus ssp byzantinus
Geranium asphodeloides ssp sintenisii
Gypsophila glandulosa
Hedera colchica
Heracleum platytaenium
Heracleum scabrum
Hesperis microcalyx
Hesperis stellata
Hibiscus ponticus
Hieracium asterodermum
Hieracium gentiliforme
Hieracium sparsum
Hypericum bithynicum
Hypericum xylosteifolium
Ilex colchica
Inula magnifica
Iranecio lazicus
Jasione supina ssp pontica
Knautia byzantina
Knautia degenii
Lamium galactophyllum
Lamium garganicum var armenum
Lamium gundelsheimeri
Lamium leucolophum
Lamium ponticum
Lamium sulfureum
Lamium veronicifolium
Lathyrus karsianus
Lathyrus rotundifolius ssp undulatus
Lathyrus tukhtensis
Leptopus chinensis
Ligusticum physospermifolium
Lilium monadelphum var armenum
Lilium pyrenaicum ssp ponticum
Linaria genistifolia
Linaria sintenisii
Linum tauricum
Lonicera caucasica
Luzula pseudosudetica
Megacaryon
Megacaryon armenum
Melampyrum alboffianum
Minuartia abchasica
Minuartia rhodocalyx
Muscari alpanicum
Muscari armeniacum
Muscari aucheri
Muscari dolichanthum
Muscari pendulum
Mutellina caucasica
Myosotis lazica
Narthecium balansae
Necranthus orobanchoides
Noccaea sintenisii
Nonea karsensis
Nonea pulmonarioides
Omphalodes cappadocica
Omphalodes caucasica
Omphalodes kusnetzovii
Onosma affinis
Onosma ambigens
Onosma arcuata
Onosma bozakmannii
Onosma circinnata
Onosma laparioides
Onosma lineariloba
Onosma nigricaulis
Onosma obtusifolia
Onosma paphlagonica
Onosma subulifolia
Onosma velutina
Orchis patens var viridifusca
Orobanche armena
Osmanthus decorus
Othocallis monanthos
Othocallis winogradowii
Pachyphragma
Pachyphragma macrophyllum
Paeonia macrophylla
Paeonia wittmanniana
Papaver lateritium
Papaver macrostomum var tubuliferum
Papaver pilosum
Paracaryum artvinense
Paracaryum corymbitforme
Paracaryum erysimifolium
Paracaryum leptophyllum
Paracaryum montbretii
Pastinaca aurantiaca
Pedicularis olympica
Peucedanum chryseum
Phlomis russeliana
Picea orientalis
Pimpinella idae
Platyruscus colchicus
Polygala anatolica
Polygonatum obtusifolium
Potentilla armeniaca
Potentilla buccoana
Potentilla cappadocica
Potentilla doddsii
Potentilla savvalensis
Primula abchasica
Primula longipes
Primula megaseifolia
Psephellus colchicus
Pseudomuscari coeleste
Pseudosempervivum sintenisii
Pyrus balansae
Quercus hartwissiana
Quercus imeretina
Quercus pontica
Ranunculus bulbosus ssp aleae
Ranunculus dissectus
Ranunculus tempskyanus
Rhamnus imeretina
Rhamphicarpa medwedewii
Rhododendron smirnowii
Rhododendron ungernii
Rhodothamnus sessillifolius
Rhynchospora caucasica
Rosa boissieri
Rosa pisiformis
Rosa woronowii
Rubus discolor
Rubus tomentosus var canescens
Salvia forskahlei
Salvia huberi
Salvia tobeyi
Satureja bzybica
Satureja isophylla
Saxifraga abchasica
Saxifraga artvinensis
Scabiosa balianii
Scabiosa olgae
Scaligeria lazica
Scrophularia capillaris
Scrophularia paphlagonica
Scrophularia sosnowskyi
Scrophularia subaequiloba
Scutellaria helenae
Scutellaria pontica
Sedum hispanicum
Sempervivum armenum
Sempervivum furseorum
Sempervivum gillianii
Sempervivum minus var glabrum
Sempervivum minus var minus
Sempervivum staintonii
Senecio trapezunticus
Seseli foliosum
Seseli rupicola
Sideritis amasiaca
Sideritis armeniaca
Sideritis dichotoma
Sideritis germanicopolitana
Silene boissieri
Silene lazica
Silene physocalyx
Siphonostylis lazica
Sorbus colchica
Sredinskya
Sredinskya grandis
Stachys bayburtensis
Stachys huber-morathii
Stachys macrophylla
Stachys rizeensis
Stachys sosnowskyi
Stachys trapezuntea
Staphylea colchica
Symphytum asperum
Symphytum bornmeulleri
Symphytum longipetiolatum
Symphytum savvalense
Symphytum sylvaticum
Teucrium multinodum
Teucrium trapezunticum
Thlaspi lilacinum
Thymus artvinicus
Tilia rubra
Trachystemon orientalis
Tragopogon aureus
Trapa colchica
Trifolium caudatum
Trifolium euxinum
Trifolium pannonicum
Trifolium polyphyllum
Trifolium sintenisii
Tripleurospermum monticolum
Verbascum abieticolum
Verbascum artvinense
Verbascum bracteosum
Verbascum decursivum
Verbascum drymophiloides
Verbascum eriocarpum
Verbascum eriorrhabdon
Verbascum freynii
Verbascum gracilescens
Verbascum lachnopus
Verbascum myrianthum
Verbascum olympicum
Verbascum ponticum
Verbascum pseudovarians
Verbascum spectabile
Verbascum sphenandroides
Verbascum transcaucasicum
Verbascum wiedemannianum
Veronica allahuekberensis
Veronica fuchsii
Veronica monticola
Veronica oltensis
Veronica siaretensis
Veronica turrilliana
Vicia freyniana
Vinca pubescens
Viola odontocalycina
Viola orthoceras
Zelkova carpinifolia


Summary

Included here is a zone along the southern part of the Black Sea most of which is in Turkey but extends west along the Black Sea shores of Bulgaria as far as the Gulf of Burgas. This part has been described as the Euxinic zone. In the east it includes the western Caucasus in western Georgia and the coastal zone as far north as Tuapse. This is the so-called Colchic zone.

Of the endemic and near endemic vascular plants so far recorded there are about 363 species in 162 genera and 60 families. There are 5 endemic genera (marked red) but no endemic families.

References

Browicz, K. 1987. Chorology of the Euxinian and Hyrcanian elements in the woody flora of Asia. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 162: 305-314.

Karaer, F. & Kilinc, M. 2001. The flora of Kelkit Valley. Turkish Journal of Botany, 25: 195-238.

Karaer, F., Kutbay, H. G. & Kilinc, M. 1997. The flora and vegetation of the coastal dunes of the east Black Sea region. Turkish Journal of Botany, 21: 177-185.

Korkmaz, H. & Engin, A. 2001. The flora of the Boyabat (Sinop) Dam and its environs.Turkish Journal of Botany, 25: 397-435.

Ozen, F. & Kilinc, M. 2002. The flora and vegetation of the Kundez Forest. Turkish Journal of Botany, 26: 371-393.

Turker, A. U. & Guner, A. 2003. Plant diversity in Abant Nature Park (Bolu), Turkey.Turkish Journal of Botany, 27: 185-221.

Yarci, C. 1999. Contributions to the flora of the western part of Istranca Mountains (Kirklareli/Thrace Region). Turkish Journal of Botany, 23: 211-228.

Zohary, M. 1971. The Phytogeographical Foundations of the Middle East. In: Plant Life of South-West Asia. Eds. P. H. Davies, P. C. Harper & I. C. Hedge. The Botanical Society of Edinburgh.

Zohary, M., Heyn, C. C. & Heller, D. 1980. Conspectus Florae Orientalis. The Israel Academy of Science and Humanities. Jerusalem.