Endemics in Family Order

Acanthaceae
Gynocraterium
Gynocraterium guianense
Polylychnis
Polylychnis essequibensis
Polylychnis fulgens

Anacardiaceae
Tapirira guianensis

Annonaceae
Duckeanthus
Duckeanthus grandiflorus
Guatteria
Guatteria anomala
Guatteria atabapensis
Guatteria augusti
Guatteria calliantha
Guatteria dura
Guatteria ecuadorensis
Guatteria eriopoda
Guatteria excelsa
Guatteria ferruginea
Guatteria fruticosa
Guatteria geminiflora
Guatteria glauca
Guatteria guentheri
Guatteria insignis
Guatteria jefensis
Guatteria juninensis
Guatteria liesneri
Guatteria microcarpa
Guatteria modesta
Guatteria occidentalis
Guatteria panamensis
Guatteria pastazae
Guatteria sodiroi
Guatteria stenopetala
Guatteria tonduzii
Guatteria williamsii
Pseudephedranthus
Pseudephedranthus fragrans

Apocynaceae
Cynanchum caespitulosum
Ditassa bolivarensis
Galactophora
Galactophora calycina
Galactophora colellana
Galactophora crassifolia
Galactophora magnifica
Galactophora petiolata
Galactophora pulchella
Galactophora pumila
Galactophora schomburgkiana
Matelea coriacea
Parahancornia fasciculata
Salpinctes
Salpinctes kalmiifolius

Aquifoliaceae
Ilex altiplana
Ilex karuaiana
Ilex soderstromii
Ilex tepuiana

Araceae
Jasarum
Jasarum steyermarkii
Urospatha
Urospatha friedrichsthalii

Arecaceae
Leopoldinia
Leopoldinia major
Leopoldinia piassaba
Leopoldinia pulchra

Asteraceae
Achnopogon
Achnopogon steyermarkii
Cardonaea
Cardonaea jauaensis
Chimantaea
Chimantaea mirabilis
Duidaea
Duidaea marahuacensis
Duidaea pinifolia
Duidaea rubriceps
Duidaea tatei
Eurydochus
Eurydochus bracteatus
Eurydochus cortesii
Glossarion
Glossarion bilabiatum
Glossarion rhodanthum
Gongylolepis
Gongylolepis benthamiana
Gongylolepis erioclada
Gongylolepis fruticosa
Gongylolepis glaberrima
Gongylolepis huachamacari
Gongylolepis jauaensis
Gongylolepis martiana
Gongylolepis oblanceolata
Gongylolepis pedunculata
Gongylolepis yapacana
Guaicaia
Guaicaia bilabiata
Guayania
Guayania bulbosa
Guayania cerasifolia
Guayania crassicaulis
Guayania penninervata
Guayania roupalifolia
Guayania yaviana
Huberopappus
Huberopappus maigualidae
Imeria
Imeria memorabilis
Neblinaea
Neblinaea promontoriorum
Quelchia
Quelchia cardonae
Siapaea
Siapaea liesneri
Stenopadus
Stenopadus campestris
Stenopadus chimantensis
Stenopadus colveei
Stenopadus connellii
Stenopadus crassifolius
Stenopadus huachamacari
Stenopadus jauensis
Stenopadus kunhardtii
Stenopadus obconicus
Stenopadus sericeus
Stenopadus talaumifolius
Stomatochaeta
Stomatochaeta cylindrica
Tuberculocarpus
Tuberculocarpus ruber
Tyleropappus
Tyleropappus dichotomus

Bignoniaceae
Digomphia
Digomphia ceratophora
Digomphia densicoma
Digomphia laurifolia
Potamoganos
Potamoganos microcalyx

Bonnetiaceae
Archytaea
Archytaea angustifolia
Archytaea triflora
Bonnetia ahogadoi
Bonnetia bolivarensis
Bonnetia celiae
Bonnetia chimantensis
Bonnetia colombiana
Bonnetia cordifolia
Bonnetia crassa
Bonnetia euryanthera
Bonnetia fasciculata
Bonnetia huberiana
Bonnetia jauaensis
Bonnetia lanceifolia
Bonnetia liesneri
Bonnetia maguireorum
Bonnetia multinervia
Bonnetia neblinae
Bonnetia ptariensis
Bonnetia roraimae
Bonnetia roseiflora
Bonnetia rubicunda
Bonnetia sessilis
Bonnetia steyermarkii
Bonnetia tepuiensis
Bonnetia tristyla
Bonnetia wurdackii

Bromeliaceae
Aechmea brassicoides
Ayensua
Ayensua uapanensis
Brewcaria
Brewcaria brocchinioides
Brewcaria duidensis
Brewcaria hechtioides
Brewcaria hohenbergioides
Brewcaria marahuacae
Brewcaria reflexa
Brocchinia
Brocchinia micrantha
Brocchinia reducta
Brocchinia steyermarkii
Brocchinia tatei
Connellia
Connellia augustae
Connellia caricifolia
Connellia quelchii
Guzmania sphaeroidea
Guzmania steyermarkii
Lindmania
Lindmania gracillima
Navia
Navia abysmophila
Navia acaulis
Navia affinis
Navia albiflora
Navia aliciae
Navia aloifolia
Navia angustifolia
Navia arida
Navia aurea
Navia axillaris
Navia barbellata
Navia berryana
Navia bicolor
Navia brachyphylla
Navia breweri
Navia cardonae
Navia caricifolia
Navia carnevalii
Navia caulescens
Navia caurensis
Navia colorata
Navia connata
Navia crassicaulis
Navia cretacea
Navia crispa
Navia cucullata
Navia culcitaria
Navia delascionis
Navia duidae
Navia ebracteata
Navia emergens
Navia filifera
Navia fontoides
Navia garcia-barrigae
Navia geaster
Navia glandulifera
Navia glauca
Navia gleasonii
Navia graminifolia
Navia heliophila
Navia huberiana
Navia immersa
Navia incrassata
Navia intermedia
Navia involucrata
Navia jauana
Navia lactea
Navia lanigera
Navia lasiantha
Navia latifolia
Navia lepidota
Navia liesneri
Navia lindmanioides
Navia linearis
Navia luzuloides
Navia maguirei
Navia mima
Navia mosaica
Navia myriantha
Navia navicularis
Navia nubicola
Navia ocellata
Navia octopoides
Navia ovoidea
Navia paruana
Navia parvula
Navia patria
Navia pauciflora
Navia phelpsiae
Navia pilarica
Navia piresii
Navia polyglomerata
Navia pulvinata
Navia pungens
Navia robinsonii
Navia sandwithii
Navia saxicola
Navia schultesiana
Navia scirpiflora
Navia scopulorum
Navia semiserrata
Navia serrulata
Navia splendens
Navia stenodonta
Navia steyermarkii
Navia subpetiolata
Navia tentaculata
Navia terramarae
Navia trichodonta
Navia umbratilis
Navia viridis
Navia wurdackii
Navia xyridiflora
Steyerbromelia
Steyerbromelia deflexa
Steyerbromelia diffusa
Steyerbromelia discolor
Steyerbromelia neblinae
Steyerbromelia ramosa
Steyerbromelia thomasii

Burmanniaceae
Hexapterella steyermarkii

Burseraceae
Dacryodes glabra

Calophyllaceae
Caraipa psilocarpa
Neotatea duidae
Neotatea longifolia
Neotatea neblinae

Celastraceae
Maytenus apiculata

Chrysobalanaceae
Couepia cognata
Licania lasseri
Licania microphylla
Parinari rodolphii

Clusiaceae
Clusia pusilla
Moronobea
Moronobea ptaritepuiana
Thysanostemon
Thysanostemon fanshawei
Thysanostemon pakaraimae
Tovomita weddelliana

Convolvulaceae
Lysiostyles
Lysiostyles scandens

Cucurbitaceae
Cayaponia botryocarpa
Cayaponia guianensis
Gurania simplicifolia

Cyperaceae
Cephalocarpus
Cephalocarpus confertus
Cephalocarpus dracaenula
Cephalocarpus obovoideus
Cephalocarpus rigidus
Cladium costatum
Didymiandrum
Didymiandrum stellatum
Everardia
Everardia angusta
Everardia debilis
Everardia diffusa
Everardia disticha
Everardia erectolaxa
Everardia flexifolia
Everardia longifolia
Everardia maguireana
Everardia montana
Everardia montana ssp duidae
Everardia montana ssp glaucifolia
Everardia montana ssp guaiquinimae
Everardia montana ssp montana
Everardia montana ssp ptariensis
Everardia recurvigluma
Everardia vareschii
Exochogyne
Exochogyne amazonica
Exochogyne decandra
Exochogyne megalorrhyncha
Exochogyne steyermarkii
Koyamaea
Koyamaea neblinensis
Lagenocarpus guianensis
Mapania tepuiana
Rhynchocladium
Rhynchocladium steyermarkii
Rhynchospora biflora
Rhynchospora triflora

Dipterocarpaceae
Pakaraimaea
Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea

Droseraceae
Drosera arenicola
Drosera meristocaulis
Drosera roraimae

Elaeocarpaceae
Sloanea crassifolia
Sloanea megacarpa

Ericaceae
Ledothamnus
Ledothamnus atroadenus
Ledothamnus decumbens
Ledothamnus guyanensis
Ledothamnus jauaensis
Ledothamnus luteus
Ledothamnus parviflorus
Ledothamnus sessiliflorus
Mycerinus
Mycerinus chimantensis
Mycerinus sclerophyllus
Mycerinus viridiflorus
Notopora
Notopora schomburgkii
Orthaea crinita
Tepuia
Tepuia cardonae
Tepuia intermedia
Tepuia multiglandulosa
Tepuia speciosa
Tepuia tatei
Tepuia vareschii
Tepuia venusta

Eriocaulaceae
Eriocaulon dimorphopetalum
Paepalanthus dichotomus var dichotomus
Rondonanthus
Rondonanthus acopanensis
Rondonanthus acopanensis var obtusifolius
Rondonanthus capillaceus
Rondonanthus caulescens
Rondonanthus duidae
Rondonanthus flabelliformis
Rondonanthus roraimae
Syngonanthus jenmanii
Wurdackia
Wurdackia flabelliformis

Euphorbiaceae
Angostyles
Angostyles longifolia
Astrococcus
Astrococcus cornutus
Croton matourensis
Haematostemon
Haematostemon coriaceus
Haematostemon guianensis
Pausandra martinii
Senefelderopsis
Senefelderopsis croizatii

Euphroniaceae
Euphronia
Euphronia acuminatissima
Euphronia guianensis
Euphronia hirtelloides Lightiodendron guianense

Fabaceae
Aldina
Aldina aurea
Aldina berryi
Aldina discolor
Aldina elliptica
Aldina heterophylla
Aldina insignis
Aldina insignis var. insignis
Aldina kunhardtiana
Aldina latifolia
Aldina macrophylla
Aldina occidentalis
Aldina paulberryi
Aldina petiolulata
Aldina polyphylla
Aldina reticulata
Clitoria kaieteurensis
Dicymbe
Dicymbe jenmanii
Heterostemon
Heterostemon conjugatus
Heterostemon ellipticus
Heterostemon impar
Heterostemon ingifolius
Heterostemon mazarunensis
Heterostemon mimosoides
Heterostemon otophorus
Lecointea amazonica
Macrolobium huberianum
Panurea
Panurea longifolia
Petaladenium
Petaladenium urceoliferum
Spirotropis
Spirotropis candollei
Spirotropis longifolia
Swartzia eriocarpa
Swartzia lamellata
Tachigali pubiflora

Gentianaceae
Celiantha
Celiantha chimantensis
Chorisepalum
Chorisepalum psychotrioides
Irlbachia
Irlbachia amplissima
Irlbachia elegans
Irlbachia frigida
Irlbachia nemorosa
Irlbachia pedunculata
Irlbachia phelpsiana
Irlbachia plantaginifolia
Irlbachia poeppigii
Irlbachia pratensis
Irlbachia pulcherrima
Irlbachia pumila
Irlbachia ramossisima
Irlbachia speciosa
Irlbachia tatei
Neblinantha
Neblinantha neblinae
Neblinantha parvifolia
Rogersonanthus
Rogersonanthus arboreus
Rogersonanthus coccineus
Rogersonanthus quelchii
Saccifolium
Saccifolium bandeirae
Sipapoantha
Sipapoantha ostrina

Gesneriaceae
Alloplectus savannarum
Lembocarpus
Lembocarpus amoenus
Nautilocalyx adenosiphon
Rhoogeton
Rhoogeton viviparus
Tylopsacas
Tylopsacas cuneata

Haemodoraceae
Pyrrorhiza
Pyrrorhiza neblinae

Humiriaceae
Humiria balsamifera var pilosa

Hymenophyllopsidaceae
Hymenophyllopsis
Hymenophyllopsis asplenioides
Hymenophyllopsis dejecta
Hymenophyllopsis hymenophylloides
Hymenophyllopsis incognita
Hymenophyllopsis steyermarkii
Hymenophyllopsis superba
Hymenophyllopsis universitatis

Iridaceae
Trimezia fosteriana

Ixonanthaceae
Cyrillopsis
Cyrillopsis micrantha
Ochthocosmus
Ochthocosmus attenuatus
Ochthocosmus roraimae

Lamiaceae
Aegiphila roraimensis

Lauraceae
Endlicheria nilssonii
Kubitzkia mezii

Lecythidaceae
Asteranthos brasiliensis

Lentibulariaceae
Utricularia humboldtii

Loganiaceae
Bonyunia
Bonyunia minor

Magnoliaceae
Dugandiodendron ptaritepuianum

Malpighiaceae
Blepharandra
Blepharandra fimbriata
Blepharandra hypoleuca
Byrsonima carraoana
Diacidia
Diacidia glaucifolia
Tetrapterys pusilla

Malvaceae
Aguiaria
Aguiaria excelsa
Uladendron
Uladendron codesuri

Melastomataceae
Acanthella
Acanthella pulchra
Acanthella sprucei
Boyania
Boyania ayangannae
Comoliopsis
Comoliopsis neblinae
Graffenrieda irwinii
Macairea
Macairea axilliflora
Macairea cardonae
Macairea chimantensis
Macairea duidae
Macairea lanata
Macairea lasiophylla
Macairea linearis
Macairea maroana
Macairea multinervia
Macairea neblinae
Macairea pachyphylla
Macairea parviflora
Macairea radula
Macairea rigida
Macairea rufescens
Macairea spruceana
Macairea stylosa
Macairea sulcata
Macairea theresiae
Macairea thyrsiflora
Macrocentrum
Macrocentrum steyermarkii
Maguireanthus
Maguireanthus ayangannae
Mallophyton
Mallophyton chimantense
Miconia maguirei
Miconia roraimensis
Neblinanthera
Neblinanthera cumbrensis
Ochthephilus
Ochthephilus repentinus
Phainantha
Phainantha myrteoloides
Tateanthus
Tateanthus duidae
Tryssophyton
Tryssophyton merumense

Myrtaceae
Marlierea buxifolia
Myrcia extranea

Nartheciaceae
Nietneria
Nietneria paniculata

Ochnaceae
Adenanthe
Adenanthe bicarpellata
Adenarake
Adenarake macrocarpa
Adenarake muriculata
Blastemanthus
Blastemanthus gemmiflorus subsp. sprucei
Blastemanthus grandiflorus
Philacra
Philacra auriculata
Philacra duidae
Philacra longifolia
Philacra steyermarkii
Poecilandra
Poecilandra pumila
Sauvagesia
Sauvagesia longipes
Tyleria
Tyleria breweri
Tyleria floribunda
Tyleria spathulata
Wallacea
Wallacea insignis
Wallacea multiflora

Olacaceae
Maburea
Maburea trinervis

Orchidaceae
Aracamunia
Aracamunia liesneri
Cheiradenia
Cheiradenia cuspidata
Degranvillea
Degranvillea dermaptera
Dunstervillea mirabilis
Habenaria nilssonii
Miltoniopsis santanaei
Polyotidium
Polyotidium huebneri

Passifloraceae
Dilkea acuminata
Passiflora nuriensis

Peridiscaceae
Whittonia
Whittonia guianensis

Phyllanthaceae
Celianella
Celianella montana
Chonocentrum
Chonocentrum cyathophorum

Picramniaceae
Picramnia nuriensis

Picrodendraceae
Piranhea longepedunculata

Poaceae
Cortaderia roraimensis
Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon var. floridanum
Myriocladus
Myriocladus cardonae
Myriocladus churunensis
Myriocladus distantiflorus
Myriocladus exsertus
Myriocladus grandifolius
Myriocladus involutus
Myriocladus longiramosus
Myriocladus maguirei
Myriocladus neblinaensis
Myriocladus paludicola
Myriocladus simplex
Myriocladus steyermarkii
Myriocladus virgatus
Paspalum bifidifolium
Steyermarkochloa
Steyermarkochloa angustifolia
Thrasya achlysophila

Podocarpaceae
Podocarpus roraimae
Podocarpus tepuiensis

Podostemaceae
Jenmaniella
Jenmaniella guianensis
Jenmaniella isoetifolia
Rhyncholacis
Rhyncholacis applanata
Rhyncholacis coronata
Rhyncholacis divaricata
Rhyncholacis flagellifolia
Rhyncholacis hydrocichorium
Rhyncholacis oligandra
Rhyncholacis penicillata
Weddellina
Weddellina squamulosa

Polygalaceae
Polygala blakeana

Proteaceae
Euplassa venezuelana
Roupala minima

Pteridaceae
Pterozonium
Pterozonium cyclophyllum
Pterozonium elaphoglossoides
Pterozonium lineare
Pterozonium spectabile
Pterozonium steyermarkii
Pterozonium terrestre

Ranunculaceae
Pachyloma
Pachyloma huberioides
Pachyloma pusillum
Pachyloma setosum

Rapateaceae
Amphiphyllum
Amphiphyllum rigidum
Guacamaya
Guacamaya superba
Kunhardtia
Kunhardtia radiata
Kunhardtia rhodantha
Marahuacaea
Marahuacaea schomburgkii
Monotrema
Monotrema aemulans
Monotrema arthrophyllum
Monotrema bracteatum
Monotrema xyridoides
Phelpsiella
Phelpsiella ptericaulis
Potarophytum
Potarophytum riparium
Rapatea steyermarkii
Saxofridericia
Saxofridericia duidae
Schoenocephalium
Schoenocephalium cucullatum
Schoenocephalium martianum
Schoenocephalium schultesii
Schoenocephalium teretifolium
Spathanthus
Spathanthus bicolor
Spathanthus unilateralis
Stegolepis
Stegolepis angustata
Stegolepis breweri
Stegolepis ferruginea
Stegolepis gleasoniana
Stegolepis grandis
Stegolepis guianensis
Stegolepis hitchcockii
Stegolepis jauaensis
Stegolepis ligulata
Stegolepis maguireana
Stegolepis pauciflora
Stegolepis perligulata
Stegolepis ptaritepuiensis
Stegolepis pungens
Stegolepis squarrosa
Stegolepis steyermarkii
Stegolepis terramarensis
Stegolepis vivipara
Stegolepis wurdackii ssp chimantensis
Stegolepis wurdackii ssp wurdackii
Windsorina
Windsorina guianensis

Rhizophoraceae
Cassipourea guianensis
Sterigmapetalum guianense

Rubiaceae
Aphanocarpus
Aphanocarpus steyermarkii
Calycophyllum venezuelense
Cephalodendron
Cephalodendron aracamuniensis
Cephalodendron globosum
Chalepophyllum
Chalepophyllum guianense
Chondrococcus
Chondrococcus laevis
Coccochondra
Coccochondra laevis
Coryphothamnus
Coryphothamnus auyantepuiensis
Dendrosipanea
Dendrosipanea revoluta
Dendrosipanea spigelioides
Duidania
Duidania montana
Gleasonia
Gleasonia duidana
Henriquezia
Henriquezia jenmanii
Henriquezia nitida
Henriquezia nitida var longisepala
Henriquezia nitida var macrophylla
Henriquezia nitida var nitida
Henriquezia verticillata
Hillia psammifolia
Holstianthus
Holstianthus barbigularis
Isertia
Isertia coccinea
Isertia haenkeana
Isertia haenkeana var haenkeana
Isertia hypoleuca
Isertia krausei
Isertia laevis
Isertia longifolia
Isertia parviflora
Isertia pittieri
Isertia reticulata
Isertia rosea
Isertia scorpioides
Isertia spiciformis
Isertia verrucosa
Isertia wilhelminensis
Ladenbergia lambertiana
Maguireocharis
Maguireocharis neblinae
Maguireothamnus
Maguireothamnus speciosus subsp. jauaensis
Merumea
Merumea coccocypseloides
Merumea plicata
Neblinathamnus
Neblinathamnus argyreus
Neblinathamnus brasiliensis
Neobertiera
Neobertiera gracilis
Pagameopsis
Pagameopsis garryoides
Pagameopsis maguirei
Platycarpum
Platycarpum rhododactylum
Platycarpum rugosum
Psychotria hemicephaelis
Psychotria jauaensis
Psychotria kaieteurensis
Retiniphyllum
Retiniphyllum cataractae
Retiniphyllum chloranthum
Retiniphyllum concolor
Retiniphyllum discolor
Retiniphyllum fuchsioides
Retiniphyllum glabrum
Retiniphyllum guianense
Retiniphyllum kuhlmannii
Retiniphyllum laxiflorum
Retiniphyllum laxiflorum var laxiflorum
Retiniphyllum laxiflorum var longilobum
Retiniphyllum longiflorum
Retiniphyllum maguirei
Retiniphyllum parvifolium
Retiniphyllum pauciflorum
Retiniphyllum pilosum
Retiniphyllum scabrum
Retiniphyllum schomburgkii
Retiniphyllum secundiflorum
Retiniphyllum speciosum
Retiniphyllum tepuiense
Retiniphyllum truncatum
Sipanea wilson-brownei
Sipaneopsis
Sipaneopsis cururuensis
Sipaneopsis foldatsii
Sipaneopsis huberi
Sipaneopsis maguirei
Sipaneopsis morichensis
Sipaneopsis pacimonensis
Sipaneopsis rupicola

Rutaceae
Apocaulon
Apocaulon carnosum
Decagonocarpus
Decagonocarpus cornutus
Decagonocarpus oppositifolius
Myllanthus
Myllanthus maroana
Myllanthus neblinensis
Myllanthus ulei
Raveniopsis
Raveniopsis abyssicola
Raveniopsis aracaensis
Raveniopsis breweri
Raveniopsis capitata
Raveniopsis cowaniana
Raveniopsis fraterna
Raveniopsis jauaensis
Raveniopsis liesneri
Raveniopsis linearis
Raveniopsis necopinata
Raveniopsis nubicola
Raveniopsis paruana
Raveniopsis peduncularis
Raveniopsis ruellioides Raveniopsis sericea
Raveniopsis stelligera
Raveniopsis steyermarkii
Raveniopsis tomentosa
Raveniopsis trifoliolata
Rutaneblina
Rutaneblina pusilla
Spathelia ulei

Salicaceae
Euceraea
Euceraea nitida
Euceraea rheophytica
Euceraea sleumeriana

Santalaceae
Phoradendron pellucidulum
Thesium tepuiense

Sapindaceae
Cupania kukenanica
Matayba camptoneura
Paullinia nuriensis

Sapotaceae
Elaeoluma schomburgkiana
Pouteria kaieteurensis

Sarraceniaceae
Heliamphora
Heliamphora heterodoxa

Scrophulariaceae
Bonnetia
Bonnetia ahogadoi
Bonnetia anceps
Bonnetia bahiensis
Bonnetia bolivarensis
Bonnetia celiae
Bonnetia chimantensis
Bonnetia cordifolia
Bonnetia crassa
Bonnetia cubensis
Bonnetia euryanthera
Bonnetia fasciculata
Bonnetia holostyla
Bonnetia huberiana
Bonnetia jauaensis
Bonnetia kathleenae
Bonnetia katleeniae
Bonnetia lanceifolia
Bonnetia liesneri
Bonnetia maguireorum
Bonnetia multinervia
Bonnetia neblinae
Bonnetia paniculata
Bonnetia ptariensis
Bonnetia roraimae
Bonnetia roseiflora
Bonnetia rubicunda
Bonnetia sessilis
Bonnetia steyermarkii
Bonnetia stricta
Bonnetia tepuiensis
Bonnetia tristyla
Bonnetia venulosa
Bonnetia wurdackii

Solanaceae
Cyphomandra tobagensis
Solanum oppositifolium
Solanum rufistellatum

Tetrameristaceae
Pentamerista
Pentamerista neotropica

Thurniaceae
Thurnia
Thurnia jenmanii
Thurnia polycephala
Thurnia sphaerocephala

Thymelaeaceae
Daphnopsis steyermarkii
Tepuianthus
Tepuianthus auyantepuiensis
Tepuianthus sarisarinamensis
Tepuianthus yapacanensis

Urticaceae
Cecropia kavanayensis

Vochysiaceae
Qualea dinizii
Ruizterania ferruginea
Vochysia ferruginea
Vochysia rubiginosa

Xyridaceae
Abolboda
Abolboda macrostachya
Achlyphila
Achlyphila disticha
Aratitiyopea
Aratitiyopea lopezii
Orectanthe
Orectanthe ptaritepuiana
Orectanthe sceptrum


Endemics in Alphabetical Order

Abolboda
Abolboda macrostachya
Acanthella
Acanthella pulchra
Acanthella sprucei
Achlyphila
Achlyphila disticha
Achnopogon
Achnopogon steyermarkii
Adenanthe
Adenanthe bicarpellata
Adenarake
Adenarake macrocarpa
Adenarake muriculata
Aechmea brassicoides
Aegiphila roraimensis
Aguiaria
Aguiaria excelsa
Aldina
Aldina aurea
Aldina berryi
Aldina discolor
Aldina elliptica
Aldina heterophylla
Aldina insignis
Aldina insignis var insignis
Aldina kunhardtiana
Aldina latifolia
Aldina macrophylla
Aldina occidentalis
Aldina paulberryi
Aldina petiolulata
Aldina polyphylla
Aldina reticulata
Alloplectus savannarum
Amphiphyllum
Amphiphyllum rigidum
Angostyles
Angostyles longifolia
Aphanocarpus
Aphanocarpus steyermarkii
Apocaulon
Apocaulon carnosum
Aracamunia
Aracamunia liesneri
Aratitiyopea
Aratitiyopea lopezii
Archytaea
Archytaea angustifolia
Archytaea triflora
Asteranthos brasiliensis
Astrococcus
Astrococcus cornutus
Ayensua
Ayensua uapanensis
Blastemanthus
Blastemanthus gemmiflorus ssp sprucei
Blastemanthus grandiflorus
Blepharandra
Blepharandra fimbriata
Blepharandra hypoleuca
Bonnetia ahogadoi
Bonnetia bolivarensis
Bonnetia celiae
Bonnetia chimantensis
Bonnetia colombiana
Bonnetia cordifolia
Bonnetia crassa
Bonnetia euryanthera
Bonnetia fasciculata
Bonnetia huberiana
Bonnetia jauaensis
Bonnetia lanceifolia
Bonnetia liesneri
Bonnetia maguireorum
Bonnetia multinervia
Bonnetia neblinae
Bonnetia ptariensis
Bonnetia roraimae
Bonnetia roseiflora
Bonnetia rubicunda
Bonnetia sessilis
Bonnetia steyermarkii
Bonnetia tepuiensis
Bonnetia tristyla
Bonnetia wurdackii
Bonyunia
Bonyunia minor
Boyania
Boyania ayangannae
Brewcaria
Brewcaria brocchinioides
Brewcaria duidensis
Brewcaria hechtioides
Brewcaria hohenbergioides
Brewcaria marahuacae
Brewcaria reflexa
Brocchinia
Brocchinia micrantha
Brocchinia reducta
Brocchinia steyermarkii
Brocchinia tatei
Byrsonima carraoana
Calycophyllum venezuelense
Caraipa psilocarpa
Cardonaea
Cardonaea jauaensis
Cassipourea guianensis
Cayaponia botryocarpa
Cayaponia guianensis
Cecropia kavanayensis
Celianella
Celianella montana
Celiantha
Celiantha chimantensis
Cephalocarpus
Cephalocarpus confertus
Cephalocarpus dracaenula
Cephalocarpus obovoideus
Cephalocarpus rigidus
Cephalodendron
Cephalodendron aracamuniensis
Cephalodendron globosum
Chalepophyllum
Chalepophyllum guianense
Cheiradenia
Cheiradenia cuspidata
Chimantaea
Chimantaea mirabilis
Chondrococcus
Chondrococcus laevis
Chonocentrum
Chonocentrum cyathophorum
Chorisepalum
Chorisepalum psychotrioides
Cladium costatum
Clitoria kaieteurensis
Clusia pusilla
Coccochondra
Coccochondra laevis
Comoliopsis
Comoliopsis neblinae
Connellia
Connellia augustae
Connellia caricifolia
Connellia quelchii
Cortaderia roraimensis
Coryphothamnus
Coryphothamnus auyantepuiensis
Couepia cognata
Croton matourensis
Cupania kukenanica
Cynanchum caespitulosum
Cyphomandra tobagensis
Cyrillopsis
Cyrillopsis micrantha
Dacryodes glabra
Daphnopsis steyermarkii
Decagonocarpus
Decagonocarpus cornutus
Decagonocarpus oppositifolius
Degranvillea
Degranvillea dermaptera
Dendrosipanea
Dendrosipanea revoluta
Dendrosipanea spigelioides
Diacidia
Diacidia glaucifolia
Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon var floridanum
Dicymbe
Dicymbe jenmanii
Didymiandrum
Didymiandrum stellatum
Digomphia
Digomphia ceratophora
Digomphia densicoma
Digomphia laurifolia
Dilkea acuminata
Ditassa bolivarensis
Drosera arenicola
Drosera meristocaulis
Drosera roraimae
Duckeanthus
Duckeanthus grandiflorus
Dugandiodendron ptaritepuianum
Duidaea
Duidaea marahuacensis
Duidaea pinifolia
Duidaea rubriceps
Duidaea tatei
Duidania
Duidania montana
Dunstervillea mirabilis
Elaeoluma schomburgkiana
Endlicheria nilssonii
Eriocaulon dimorphopetalum
Euceraea
Euceraea nitida
Euceraea rheophytica
Euceraea sleumeriana
Euphronia
Euphronia acuminatissima
Euphronia guianensis
Euphronia hirtelloides
Euplassa venezuelana
Eurydochus
Eurydochus bracteatus
Eurydochus cortesii
Everardia
Everardia angusta
Everardia debilis
Everardia diffusa
Everardia disticha
Everardia erectolaxa
Everardia flexifolia
Everardia longifolia
Everardia maguireana
Everardia montana
Everardia montana ssp duidae
Everardia montana ssp glaucifolia
Everardia montana ssp guaiquinimae
Everardia montana ssp montana
Everardia montana ssp ptariensis
Everardia recurvigluma
Everardia vareschii
Exochogyne
Exochogyne amazonica
Exochogyne decandra
Exochogyne megalorrhyncha
Exochogyne steyermarkii
Galactophora
Galactophora calycina
Galactophora colellana
Galactophora crassifolia
Galactophora magnifica
Galactophora petiolata
Galactophora pulchella
Galactophora pumila
Galactophora schomburgkiana
Gleasonia
Gleasonia duidana
Glossarion
Glossarion bilabiatum
Glossarion rhodanthum
Gongylolepis
Gongylolepis benthamiana
Gongylolepis erioclada
Gongylolepis fruticosa
Gongylolepis glaberrima
Gongylolepis huachamacari
Gongylolepis jauaensis
Gongylolepis martiana
Gongylolepis oblanceolata
Gongylolepis pedunculata
Gongylolepis yapacana
Graffenrieda irwinii
Guacamaya
Guacamaya superba
Guaicaia
Guaicaia bilabiata
Guatteria
Guatteria anomala
Guatteria atabapensis
Guatteria augusti
Guatteria calliantha
Guatteria dura
Guatteria ecuadorensis
Guatteria eriopoda
Guatteria excelsa
Guatteria ferruginea
Guatteria fruticosa
Guatteria geminiflora
Guatteria glauca
Guatteria guentheri
Guatteria insignis
Guatteria jefensis
Guatteria juninensis
Guatteria liesneri
Guatteria microcarpa
Guatteria modesta
Guatteria occidentalis
Guatteria panamensis
Guatteria pastazae
Guatteria sodiroi
Guatteria stenopetala
Guatteria tonduzii
Guatteria williamsii
Guayania
Guayania bulbosa
Guayania cerasifolia
Guayania crassicaulis
Guayania penninervata
Guayania roupalifolia
Guayania yaviana
Gurania simplicifolia
Guzmania sphaeroidea
Guzmania steyermarkii
Gynocraterium
Gynocraterium guianense
Habenaria nilssonii
Haematostemon
Haematostemon coriaceus
Haematostemon guianensis
Heliamphora
Heliamphora heterodoxa
Henriquezia
Henriquezia jenmanii
Henriquezia nitida
Henriquezia nitida var longisepala
Henriquezia nitida var macrophylla
Henriquezia nitida var nitida
Henriquezia verticillata
Heterostemon
Heterostemon conjugatus
Heterostemon ellipticus
Heterostemon impar
Heterostemon ingifolius
Heterostemon mazarunensis
Heterostemon mimosoides
Heterostemon otophorus
Hexapterella steyermarkii
Hillia psammifolia
Holstianthus
Holstianthus barbigularis
Huberopappus
Huberopappus maigualidae
Humiria balsamifera var pilosa
Hymenophyllopsis
Hymenophyllopsis asplenioides
Hymenophyllopsis dejecta
Hymenophyllopsis hymenophylloides
Hymenophyllopsis incognita
Hymenophyllopsis steyermarkii
Hymenophyllopsis superba
Hymenophyllopsis universitatis
Ilex altiplana
Ilex karuaiana
Ilex soderstromii
Ilex tepuiana
Imeria
Imeria memorabilis
Irlbachia
Irlbachia amplissima
Irlbachia elegans
Irlbachia frigida
Irlbachia nemorosa
Irlbachia pedunculata
Irlbachia phelpsiana
Irlbachia plantaginifolia
Irlbachia poeppigii
Irlbachia pratensis
Irlbachia pulcherrima
Irlbachia pumila
Irlbachia ramossisima
Irlbachia speciosa
Irlbachia tatei
Isertia
Isertia coccinea
Isertia haenkeana
Isertia haenkeana var haenkeana
Isertia hypoleuca
Isertia krausei
Isertia laevis
Isertia longifolia
Isertia parviflora
Isertia pittieri
Isertia reticulata
Isertia rosea
Isertia scorpioides
Isertia spiciformis
Isertia verrucosa
Isertia wilhelminensis
Jasarum
Jasarum steyermarkii
Jenmaniella
Jenmaniella guianensis
Jenmaniella isoetifolia
Koyamaea
Koyamaea neblinensis
Kubitzkia mezii
Kunhardtia
Kunhardtia radiata
Kunhardtia rhodantha
Ladenbergia lambertiana
Lagenocarpus guianensis
Lecointea amazonica
Ledothamnus
Ledothamnus atroadenus
Ledothamnus decumbens
Ledothamnus guyanensis
Ledothamnus jauaensis
Ledothamnus luteus
Ledothamnus parviflorus
Ledothamnus sessiliflorus
Lembocarpus
Lembocarpus amoenus
Leopoldinia
Leopoldinia major
Leopoldinia piassaba
Leopoldinia pulchra
Licania lasseri
Licania microphylla
Lightiodendron guianense
Lindmania
Lindmania gracillima
Lysiostyles
Lysiostyles scandens
Maburea
Maburea trinervis
Macairea
Macairea axilliflora
Macairea cardonae
Macairea chimantensis
Macairea duidae
Macairea lanata
Macairea lasiophylla
Macairea linearis
Macairea maroana
Macairea multinervia
Macairea neblinae
Macairea pachyphylla
Macairea parviflora
Macairea radula
Macairea rigida
Macairea rufescens
Macairea spruceana
Macairea stylosa
Macairea sulcata
Macairea theresiae
Macairea thyrsiflora
Macrocentrum
Macrocentrum steyermarkii
Macrolobium huberianum
Maguireanthus
Maguireanthus ayangannae
Maguireocharis
Maguireocharis neblinae
Maguireothamnus
Maguireothamnus speciosus subsp. jauaensis
Mallophyton
Mallophyton chimantense
Mapania tepuiana
Marahuacaea
Marahuacaea schomburgkii
Marlierea buxifolia
Matayba camptoneura
Matelea coriacea
Maytenus apiculata
Merumea
Merumea coccocypseloides
Merumea plicata
Miconia maguirei
Miconia roraimensis
Miltoniopsis santanaei
Monotrema
Monotrema aemulans
Monotrema arthrophyllum
Monotrema bracteatum
Monotrema xyridoides
Moronobea
Moronobea ptaritepuiana
Mycerinus
Mycerinus chimantensis
Mycerinus sclerophyllus
Mycerinus viridiflorus
Myllanthus
Myllanthus maroana
Myllanthus neblinensis
Myllanthus ulei
Myrcia extranea
Myriocladus
Myriocladus cardonae
Myriocladus churunensis
Myriocladus distantiflorus
Myriocladus exsertus
Myriocladus grandifolius
Myriocladus involutus
Myriocladus longiramosus
Myriocladus maguirei
Myriocladus neblinaensis
Myriocladus paludicola
Myriocladus simplex
Myriocladus steyermarkii
Myriocladus virgatus
Nautilocalyx adenosiphon
Navia
Navia abysmophila
Navia acaulis
Navia affinis
Navia albiflora
Navia aliciae
Navia aloifolia
Navia angustifolia
Navia arida
Navia aurea
Navia axillaris
Navia barbellata
Navia berryana
Navia bicolor
Navia brachyphylla
Navia breweri
Navia cardonae
Navia caricifolia
Navia carnevalii
Navia caulescens
Navia caurensis
Navia colorata
Navia connata
Navia crassicaulis
Navia cretacea
Navia crispa
Navia cucullata
Navia culcitaria
Navia delascionis
Navia duidae
Navia ebracteata
Navia emergens
Navia filifera
Navia fontoides
Navia garcia-barrigae
Navia geaster
Navia glandulifera
Navia glauca
Navia gleasonii
Navia graminifolia
Navia heliophila
Navia huberiana
Navia immersa
Navia incrassata
Navia intermedia
Navia involucrata
Navia jauana
Navia lactea
Navia lanigera
Navia lasiantha
Navia latifolia
Navia lepidota
Navia liesneri
Navia lindmanioides
Navia linearis
Navia luzuloides
Navia maguirei
Navia mima
Navia mosaica
Navia myriantha
Navia navicularis
Navia nubicola
Navia ocellata
Navia octopoides
Navia ovoidea
Navia paruana
Navia parvula
Navia patria
Navia pauciflora
Navia phelpsiae
Navia pilarica
Navia piresii
Navia polyglomerata
Navia pulvinata
Navia pungens
Navia robinsonii
Navia sandwithii
Navia saxicola
Navia schultesiana
Navia scirpiflora
Navia scopulorum
Navia semiserrata
Navia serrulata
Navia splendens
Navia stenodonta
Navia steyermarkii
Navia subpetiolata
Navia tentaculata
Navia terramarae
Navia trichodonta
Navia umbratilis
Navia viridis
Navia wurdackii
Navia xyridiflora
Neblinaea
Neblinaea promontoriorum
Neblinantha
Neblinantha neblinae
Neblinantha parvifolia
Neblinanthera
Neblinanthera cumbrensis
Neblinathamnus
Neblinathamnus argyreus
Neblinathamnus brasiliensis
Neobertiera
Neobertiera gracilis
Neotatea duidae
Neotatea longifolia
Neotatea neblinae
Nietneria
Nietneria paniculata
Notopora
Notopora schomburgkii
Ochthephilus
Ochthephilus repentinus
Ochthocosmus
Ochthocosmus attenuatus
Ochthocosmus roraimae
Orectanthe
Orectanthe ptaritepuiana
Orectanthe sceptrum
Orthaea crinita
Pachyloma
Pachyloma huberioides
Pachyloma pusillum
Pachyloma setosum
Paepalanthus dichotomus var dichotomus
Pagameopsis
Pagameopsis garryoides
Pagameopsis maguirei
Pakaraimaea
Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea
Panurea
Panurea longifolia
Parahancornia fasciculata
Parinari rodolphii
Paspalum bifidifolium
Passiflora nuriensis
Paullinia nuriensis
Pausandra martinii
Pentamerista
Pentamerista neotropica
Petaladenium
Petaladenium urceoliferum
Phainantha
Phainantha myrteoloides
Phelpsiella
Phelpsiella ptericaulis
Philacra
Philacra auriculata
Philacra duidae
Philacra longifolia
Philacra steyermarkii
Phoradendron pellucidulum
Picramnia nuriensis
Piranhea longepedunculata
Platycarpum
Platycarpum rhododactylum
Platycarpum rugosum
Podocarpus roraimae
Podocarpus tepuiensis
Poecilandra
Poecilandra pumila
Polygala blakeana
Polylychnis
Polylychnis essequibensis
Polylychnis fulgens
Polyotidium
Polyotidium huebneri
Potamoganos
Potamoganos microcalyx
Potarophytum
Potarophytum riparium
Pouteria kaieteurensis
Pseudephedranthus
Pseudephedranthus fragrans
Psychotria hemicephaelis
Psychotria jauaensis
Psychotria kaieteurensis
Pterozonium
Pterozonium cyclophyllum
Pterozonium elaphoglossoides
Pterozonium lineare
Pterozonium spectabile
Pterozonium steyermarkii
Pterozonium terrestre
Pyrrorhiza
Pyrrorhiza neblinae
Qualea dinizii
Quelchia
Quelchia cardonae
Rapatea steyermarkii
Raveniopsis
Raveniopsis abyssicola
Raveniopsis aracaensis
Raveniopsis breweri
Raveniopsis capitata
Raveniopsis cowaniana
Raveniopsis fraterna
Raveniopsis jauaensis
Raveniopsis liesneri
Raveniopsis linearis
Raveniopsis necopinata
Raveniopsis nubicola
Raveniopsis paruana
Raveniopsis peduncularis
Raveniopsis ruellioides
Raveniopsis sericea
Raveniopsis stelligera
Raveniopsis steyermarkii
Raveniopsis tomentosa
Raveniopsis trifoliolata
Retiniphyllum
Retiniphyllum cataractae
Retiniphyllum chloranthum
Retiniphyllum concolor
Retiniphyllum discolor
Retiniphyllum fuchsioides
Retiniphyllum glabrum
Retiniphyllum guianense
Retiniphyllum kuhlmannii
Retiniphyllum laxiflorum
Retiniphyllum laxiflorum var laxiflorum
Retiniphyllum laxiflorum var longilobum
Retiniphyllum longiflorum
Retiniphyllum maguirei
Retiniphyllum parvifolium
Retiniphyllum pauciflorum
Retiniphyllum pilosum
Retiniphyllum scabrum
Retiniphyllum schomburgkii
Retiniphyllum secundiflorum
Retiniphyllum speciosum
Retiniphyllum tepuiense
Retiniphyllum truncatum
Rhoogeton
Rhoogeton viviparus
Rhynchocladium
Rhynchocladium steyermarkii
Rhyncholacis
Rhyncholacis applanata
Rhyncholacis coronata
Rhyncholacis divaricata
Rhyncholacis flagellifolia
Rhyncholacis hydrocichorium
Rhyncholacis oligandra
Rhyncholacis penicillata
Rhynchospora biflora
Rhynchospora triflora
Rogersonanthus
Rogersonanthus arboreus
Rogersonanthus coccineus
Rogersonanthus quelchii
Rondonanthus
Rondonanthus acopanensis
Rondonanthus acopanensis var obtusifolius
Rondonanthus capillaceus
Rondonanthus caulescens
Rondonanthus duidae
Rondonanthus flabelliformis
Rondonanthus roraimae
Roupala minima
Ruizterania ferruginea
Rutaneblina
Rutaneblina pusilla
Saccifolium
Saccifolium bandeirae
Salpinctes
Salpinctes kalmiifolius
Sauvagesia
Sauvagesia longipes
Saxofridericia
Saxofridericia duidae
Schoenocephalium
Schoenocephalium cucullatum
Schoenocephalium martianum
Schoenocephalium schultesii
Schoenocephalium teretifolium
Senefelderopsis
Senefelderopsis croizatii
Siapaea
Siapaea liesneri
Sipanea wilson-brownei
Sipaneopsis
Sipaneopsis cururuensis
Sipaneopsis foldatsii
Sipaneopsis huberi
Sipaneopsis maguirei
Sipaneopsis morichensis
Sipaneopsis pacimonensis
Sipaneopsis rupicola
Sipapoantha
Sipapoantha ostrina
Sloanea crassifolia
Sloanea megacarpa
Solanum oppositifolium
Solanum rufistellatum
Spathanthus
Spathanthus bicolor
Spathanthus unilateralis
Spathelia ulei
Spirotropis
Spirotropis candollei
Spirotropis longifolia
Stegolepis
Stegolepis angustata
Stegolepis breweri
Stegolepis ferruginea
Stegolepis gleasoniana
Stegolepis grandis
Stegolepis guianensis
Stegolepis hitchcockii
Stegolepis jauaensis
Stegolepis ligulata
Stegolepis maguireana
Stegolepis pauciflora
Stegolepis perligulata
Stegolepis ptaritepuiensis
Stegolepis pungens
Stegolepis squarrosa
Stegolepis steyermarkii
Stegolepis terramarensis
Stegolepis vivipara
Stegolepis wurdackii ssp chimantensis
Stegolepis wurdackii ssp wurdackii
Stenopadus
Stenopadus campestris
Stenopadus chimantensis
Stenopadus colveei
Stenopadus connellii
Stenopadus crassifolius
Stenopadus huachamacari
Stenopadus jauensis
Stenopadus kunhardtii
Stenopadus obconicus
Stenopadus sericeus
Stenopadus talaumifolius
Sterigmapetalum guianense
Steyerbromelia
Steyerbromelia deflexa
Steyerbromelia diffusa
Steyerbromelia discolor
Steyerbromelia neblinae
Steyerbromelia ramosa
Steyerbromelia thomasii
Steyermarkochloa
Steyermarkochloa angustifolia
Stomatochaeta
Stomatochaeta cylindrica
Swartzia eriocarpa
Swartzia lamellata
Syngonanthus jenmanii
Tachigali pubiflora
Tapirira guianensis
Tateanthus
Tateanthus duidae
Tepuia
Tepuia cardonae
Tepuia intermedia
Tepuia multiglandulosa
Tepuia speciosa
Tepuia tatei
Tepuia vareschii
Tepuia venusta
Tepuianthus
Tepuianthus auyantepuiensis
Tepuianthus sarisarinamensis
Tepuianthus yapacanensis
Tetrapterys pusilla
Thesium tepuiense
Thrasya achlysophila
Thurnia
Thurnia jenmanii
Thurnia polycephala
Thurnia sphaerocephala
Thysanostemon
Thysanostemon fanshawei
Thysanostemon pakaraimae
Tovomita weddelliana
Trimezia fosteriana
Tryssophyton
Tryssophyton merumense
Tuberculocarpus
Tuberculocarpus ruber
Tyleria
Tyleria breweri
Tyleria floribunda
Tyleria spathulata
Tyleropappus
Tyleropappus dichotomus
Tylopsacas
Tylopsacas cuneata
Uladendron
Uladendron codesuri
Urospatha
Urospatha friedrichsthalii
Utricularia humboldtii
Vochysia ferruginea
Vochysia rubiginosa
Wallacea
Wallacea insignis
Wallacea multiflora
Weddellina
Weddellina squamulosa
Whittonia
Whittonia guianensis
Windsorina
Windsorina guianensis
Wurdackia
Wurdackia flabelliformis


Summary

Included here are the Guayana Highlands situated east of the Andes. The area covers much of southern Venezuela and in addition to Guayana it extends marginally into Brazil and Colombia. The area has one of the most distinctive floras on the planet.

Of the endemic and near endemic vascular plants so far recorded there are about 765 species in 256 genera and 78 families. There are about 167 endemic genera (marked red) and one endemic family, Hymenophyllopsidaceae (marked green). There is also an endemic subfamily, the Pakaraimoideae of the Dipterocarpaceae, which includes the tree Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea. Prior to its discovery dipterocarps were thought to be confined the palaeotropics. In total there are reported to be over 4000 endemic plant species so further information is required.

References

Berry, P. E., Holst, B. K. & Yatskievych, K. 1995. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.

Cleef, A. M. 1979. The phytogeographical position of the neotropical vascular Paramo flora with special references to the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. In: Tropical Botany. Eds. K. Larsen and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. Academic Press.

Kelloff, C. L. & Funk, V. A. 2004. Phytogeography of the Kaieteur Falls, Potaro Plateau, Guyana: floral distributions and affinities. Journal of Biogeography, 31: 501-513.

Maguire, B. 1970. On the flora of the Guayana Highlands. Biotropica, 2: 85-100.

Rull, V. 2004a. Biogeography of the ‘Lost World’: a palaeoecological perspective. Scence Direct (online): 125-137.

Rull, V. 2004b. Is the ‘Lost World’ really lost? Palaeoecological insights into the origin of the peculiar flora of the Guayana Highlands. Naturwissenschaften, 91: 139-142.

Rull, V. 2005. Biotic diversifications in the Guayana Highlands: a proposal. Journal of Biogeography, 32: 921-927.

Steege, H. T. Jansen-Jacobs, M. J. & Datadin, V. K. 2000. Can botanical collections assist in a National Protected Area Strategy in Guyana? Biodiversity and Conservation, 9: 215-240.

Steyermark, J. A. 1979. Plant refuge and dispersal centres in Venezuela: their relict and endemic elements. In: Tropical Botany. Eds. K. Larsen and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. Academic Press.

Steyermark, J. A. 1986. Speciation and endemism in the flora of the Vaneuzuelan tepuis. In: High Altitude Tropical Biogeography. Eds. F. Vuilleumier and M. Monasterio. Oxford University Press and American Museum of Natural History.

Zent, E. L. & Zent, S. 2004. Floristic composition, structure, and diversity of four forest plots in the Sierra Maigualida, Venezuelan Guayana, Biodiversity and Conservation, 13: 2453-2484.