Endemics in Family Order

Acanthaceae
Acanthus carduaceus
Strobilanthes lachenensis
Strobilanthes laevigatus
Strobilanthes thomsonii
Strobilanthes urticifolia

Actinidiaceae
Actinidia strigosa
Saurauia fasciculata

Amaryllidaceae
Allium phariense
Allium rhabdotum

Apiaceae
Angelica cyclocarpa
Arafoe
Arafoe aromatica
Bupleurum lanceolatum
Cortia staintoniana
Cortiella hookeri
Haplosphaera
Haplosphaera himalayensis
Heracleum canescens
Heracleum lallii
Heracleum wallichii
Indoschulzia
Indoschulzia garhwalica
Indoschulzia hameliana
Prangos pabularia

Apocynaceae
Ceropegia bhutanica
Homalium napaulense
Hoya bhutanica
Hoya polyneura
Hoya serpens
Ichnocarpus polyanthus
Pergularia roylei

Aquifoliaceae
Ilex pseudo-odorata

Araceae
Arisaema costatum
Arisaema erubescens
Arisaema griffithii
Rhaphidophora glauca

Araliaceae
Merrilliopanax alpinus

Arecaceae
Trachycarpus takil

Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochia griffithii
Aristolochia nakaoi
Asarum himalaicum

Asparagaceae
Chlorophytum nepalense
Polygonatum brevistylum

Asteraceae
Adenocaulon nepalense
Aster indamellus
Aster tapete
Brachyactis pubescens
Catamixis baccharoides
Chaetoseris macrantha
Cirsium eriophoroides
Cremanthodium nanum
Cremanthodium nepalense
Cremanthodium purpureifolium
Dubyaea oligocephala
Gymnanthemum extensum
Himalaiella foliosa
Lessingianthus robustus
Ligularia pachycarpa
Lindera venosa
Mahonia hichsii
Monosis talaumifolia
Pluchea foetida
Saussurea abnormis
Saussurea albescens
Saussurea bhutkesh
Saussurea candolleana
Saussurea chrysotricha
Saussurea conica
Saussurea costus
Saussurea crispa
Saussurea dhwojii
Saussurea donkiah
Saussurea forrestii
Saussurea gossypiphora
Saussurea graminifolia
Saussurea heteromalla
Saussurea hookeri
Saussurea kanaii
Saussurea laminamaensis
Saussurea laneana
Saussurea lappa
Saussurea leontodontoides
Saussurea linearifolia
Saussurea namikawae
Saussurea nepalensis
Saussurea nishiokae
Saussurea pachyneura
Saussurea piptathera
Saussurea platyphyllaria
Saussurea polystichoides
Saussurea simpsoniana
Saussurea spicata
Saussurea stafleuana
Saussurea stracheyana
Saussurea sughoo
Saussurea taraxacifolia
Saussurea topkegolensis
Saussurea tridactyla
Saussurea uniflora
Saussurea werneroides
Saussurea yakla
Senecio mortonii
Soroseris pumila
Synotis tetrantha
Tanacetum atkinsonii
Tanacetum gossypinum

Balsaminaceae
Impatiens bicolor
Impatiens falcifer
Impatiens flemingii
Impatiens glandulifera
Impatiens stenantha

Begoniaceae
Begonia griffithii
Begonia josephii
Begonia rubella
Putzeysia gemmipara

Berberidaceae
Berberis angulosa
Berberis aristata
Berberis erythroclada
Mahonia monyulensis
Mahonia napaulensis

Betulaceae
Alnus nitida
Carpinus faginea
Corylus jacquemontii

Biebersteiniaceae
Biebersteinia emodii
Biebersteinia odora

Bignoniaceae
Incarvillea younghusbandii

Boraginaceae
Desideria himalayensis
Draba radicans
Ehretia wallichiana
Megacarpaea polyandra
Microula bhutanica
Onosma bhutanica
Onosma bracteata
Pseudomertensia racemosa

Brassicaceae
Crucihimalaya axillaris
Draba bhutanica
Eutrema himalaicum
Pycnoplinthopsis bhutanica

Buxaceae
Buxus papillosa
Buxus rugulosa
Buxus wallichiana
Sarcococca saligna

Campanulaceae
Codonopsis affinis
Codonopsis dicentrifolia
Codonopsis subsimplex
Codonopsis thalictrifolia
Cyananthus pedunculatus
Lobelia nubigena

Caprifoliaceae
Abelia triflora
Dipsacus atratus
Lonicera cyanocarpa
Lonicera myrtilloides
Lonicera purpurascens

Caryophyllaceae
Arenaria edgeworthiana

Celastraceae
Euonymus macrocarpus
Euonymus tibeticus

Convolvulaceae
Argyreia hookeri
Dinetus grandiflorus

Cucurbitaceae
Biswarea
Biswarea tonglensis
Edgaria
Edgaria darjeelingensis

Cupressaceae
Cupressus corneyana
Cupressus torulosa

Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnus caudata

Ericaceae
Agapetes bhutanica
Agapetes incurvata
Agapetes serpens
Pyrola sikkimensis
Rhododendron afghanicum
Rhododendron camelliiflorum
Rhododendron ciliatum
Rhododendron cinnabarinum
Rhododendron collettianum
Rhododendron cowanianum
Rhododendron dalhousieae
Rhododendron falconeri
Rhododendron fulgens
Rhododendron glaucophyllum
Rhododendron grande
Rhododendron griffithianum
Rhododendron hodgsonii
Rhododendron lowndesii
Rhododendron nivale
Rhododendron pendulum
Rhododendron setosum
Rhododendron thomsonii
Rhododendron triflorum
Rhododendron virgatum
Rhododendron wightii

Euphorbiaceae
Baliospermum calycinum var. nepalense
Euphorbia sikkimensis
Euphorbia stracheyi

Fabaceae
Astragalus floridus
Astragalus himalayanus
Astragalus stipulatus
Caragana brevifolia
Caragana brevispina
Colutea multiflora
Entada phaseoloides
Hedychium aurantiacum
Hedysarum cachemirianum
Hedysarum campylocarpon
Hedysarum kumaonense
Hedysarum microcalyx
Hedysarum sikkimense
Oxytropis cachemiriana
Oxytropis mollis
Oxytropis williamsii

Gentianaceae
Gentiana depressa
Gentiana prolata
Gentiana ornata
Gentiana stipitata
Swertia hookeri
Swertia multicaulis

Geraniaceae
Geranium himalayense
Geranium nakaoanum
Geranium refractum

Gesneriaceae
Aeschynanthus sikkimensis
Chirita primulacea
Corallodiscus bhutanicus

Hamamelidaceae
Corylopsis himalayana
Parrotiopsis
Parrotiopsis involucrata
Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana

Hydrangeaceae
Deutzia bhutanensis

Hypericaceae
Hypericum tenuicaule

Iridaceae
Iris clarkei
Iris milesii

Lamiaceae
Glechoma leucophylla
Lamium tuberosum
Orthosiphon incurvus
Pogostemon tuberculosus
Roylea cinerea
Salvia sikkimensis

Lauraceae
Lindera obtusiloba var. heterophylla
Machilus edulis
Machilus gammieana

Liliaceae
Asphodeliris himalaica
Lilium sherriffiae
Lloydia flavonutans
Nomocharis aperta
Notholirion macrophyllum

Malvaceae
Lavatera kashmiriana

Melastomataceae
Platycentrum cathcartii

Nartheciaceae
Aletris gracilis

Oleaceae
Fraxinus micrantha
Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata
Syringa villosa ssp. emodi

Orchidaceae
Bulbophyllum affine
Calanthe brevicornu
Chiloschista usneoides
Coelogyne flaccida
Coelogyne longipes
Coelogyne occultata
Cryptochilus luteus
Cymbidium hookerianum
Cymbidium longifolium
Cypripedium elegans
Diplomeris hirsuta
Eulophia dabia
Gastrochilus affinis
Gastrochilus dasypogon
Gastrochilus distichus
Goodyera hemsleyana
Goodyera vittata
Herminium macrophyllum
Liparis perpusilla
Liparis pygmaea
Nervilia macroglossa
Nervilia scottii
Pholidota recurva
Platanthera exelliana
Platanthera juncea
Platanthera leptocaulon
Platanthera sikkimensis
Pleione hookeriana
Spathoglottis ixioides
Sunipia paleacea
Tipularia josephi
Vandopsis undulata

Orobanchaceae
Euphrasia bhutanica
Euphrasia simplex
Lindenbergia bhutanica
Pedicularis klotzschii

Papaveraceae
Corydalis juncea
Meconopsis bella
Meconopsis latifolia
Meconopsis simplicifolia
Meconopsis sinuata
Meconopsis villosa

Pinaceae
Abies densa
Cedrus deodara
Larix griffithii
Larix himalaica
Picea smithiana
Pinus bhutanica
Pinus gerardiana

Plantaginaceae
Lagotis clarkei
Veronica deltigera
Veronica lanuginosa

Plumbaginaceae
Ceratostigma griffithii

Poaceae
Anthoxanthum hookeri
Anthoxanthum sikkimense
Bromus himalaicus
Dendrocalamus sikkimensis
Sinarundinaria maling

Polygonaceae
Pyrrosia boothii
Rheum acuminatum
Rheum nobile
Rheum spiciforme

Primulaceae
Bryocarpum
Bryocarpum himalaicum
Omphalogramma elwessiana
Primula aureata
Primula caveana
Primula deuteronana
Primula edgeworthii
Primula gambeliana
Primula gracilipes
Primula minutissima
Primula obliqua
Primula poluninii
Primula primulina
Primula reidii
Primula reticulata
Primula sessilis
Primula sharmae
Primula sikkimensis
Primula wigramiana
Primula wollastonii

Ranunculaceae
Aconitum ferox
Aconitum gammiei
Aconitum spicatum
Anemone demissa var. demissa
Chrysocyathus nepalensis
Clematis phlebantha
Clematis phlebantha
Clematis roylei
Delphinium cashmerianum
Delphinium himalayae
Delphinium kamaonense
Delphinium roylei
Delphinium umbrosum var. drepanocentrum
Delphinium viscosum
Dichocarpum adiantifolium
Paroxygraphis
Paroxygraphis sikkimensis
Ranunculus adoxifolius
Thalictrum reniforme

Rhamnaceae
Berchemia flavescens

Rosaceae
Aria griffithii
Cotoneaster taylorii
Eriobotrya hookeriana
Geum sikkimense
Maddenia himalaica
Potentilla bhutanica
Potentilla bryoides
Potentilla nevadensis
Rosa webbiana
Rubus niveus
Sorbus cashmiriana
Sorbus hedlundii
Sorbus kurzii
Sorbus lanata

Rubiaceae
Chassalia staintonii
Luculia grandifolia
Ophiorrhiza rugosa

Rutaceae
Zanthoxylum nepalense

Salicaceae
Populus jacquemontiana
Salix bhutanensis
Salix daltoniana
Salix plectilis

Santalaceae
Thesium emodi

Sapindaceae
Acer acuminatum
Acer sikkimense
Acer stachyophyllum
Aesculus indica

Saxifragaceae
Rodgersia nepalensis
Saxifraga engleriana
Saxifraga poluniniana
Saxifraga roylei

Scrophulariaceae
Buddleja bhutanica
Buddleja colvilei
Buddleja crispa
Scrophularia sikkimensis

Staphyleaceae
Staphylea emodi

Symplocaceae
Symplocos pyrifolia

Violaceae
Viola kunawurensis
Viola wallichiana

Vitaceae
Ampelocissus nervosa

Zingiberaceae
Roscoea capitata


Endemics in Alphabetical Order

Abelia triflora
Abies densa
Acanthus carduaceus
Acer acuminatum
Acer sikkimense
Acer stachyophyllum
Aconitum ferox
Aconitum gammiei
Aconitum spicatum
Actinidia strigosa
Adenocaulon nepalense
Aeschynanthus sikkimensis
Aesculus indica
Agapetes bhutanica
Agapetes incurvata
Agapetes serpens
Aletris gracilis
Allium phariense
Allium rhabdotum
Alnus nitida
Ampelocissus nervosa
Anemone demissa var. demissa
Angelica cyclocarpa
Anthoxanthum hookeri
Anthoxanthum sikkimense
Arafoe
Arafoe aromatica
Arenaria edgeworthiana
Argyreia hookeri
Aria griffithii
Arisaema costatum
Arisaema erubescens
Arisaema griffithii
Aristolochia griffithii
Aristolochia nakaoi
Asarum himalaicum
Asphodeliris himalaica
Aster indamellus
Aster tapete
Astragalus floridus
Astragalus himalayanus
Astragalus stipulatus
Baliospermum calycinum var. nepalense
Begonia griffithii
Begonia josephii
Begonia rubella
Berberis angulosa
Berberis aristata
Berberis erythroclada
Berchemia flavescens
Biebersteinia emodii
Biebersteinia odora
Biswarea
Biswarea tonglensis
Brachyactis pubescens
Bromus himalaicus
Bryocarpum
Bryocarpum himalaicum
Buddleja bhutanica
Buddleja colvilei
Buddleja crispa
Bulbophyllum affine
Bupleurum lanceolatum
Buxus papillosa
Buxus rugulosa
Buxus wallichiana
Calanthe brevicornu
Caragana brevifolia
Caragana brevispina
Carpinus faginea
Catamixis baccharoides
Cedrus deodara
Ceratostigma griffithii
Ceropegia bhutanica
Chaetoseris macrantha
Chassalia staintonii
Chiloschista usneoides
Chirita primulacea
Chlorophytum nepalense
Chrysocyathus nepalensis
Cirsium eriophoroides
Clematis phlebantha
Clematis phlebantha
Clematis roylei
Codonopsis affinis
Codonopsis dicentrifolia
Codonopsis subsimplex
Codonopsis thalictrifolia
Coelogyne flaccida
Coelogyne longipes
Coelogyne occultata
Colutea multiflora
Corallodiscus bhutanicus
Cortia staintoniana
Cortiella hookeri
Corydalis juncea
Corylopsis himalayana
Corylus jacquemontii
Cotoneaster taylorii
Cremanthodium nanum
Cremanthodium nepalense
Cremanthodium purpureifolium
Crucihimalaya axillaris
Cryptochilus luteus
Cupressus corneyana
Cupressus torulosa
Cyananthus pedunculatus
Cymbidium hookerianum
Cymbidium longifolium
Cypripedium elegans
Delphinium cashmerianum
Delphinium himalayae
Delphinium kamaonense
Delphinium roylei
Delphinium umbrosum var. drepanocentrum
Delphinium viscosum
Dendrocalamus sikkimensis
Desideria himalayensis
Deutzia bhutanensis
Dichocarpum adiantifolium
Dinetus grandiflorus
Diplomeris hirsuta
Dipsacus atratus
Draba bhutanica
Draba radicans
Dubyaea oligocephala
Edgaria
Edgaria darjeelingensis
Ehretia wallichiana
Elaeagnus caudata
Entada phaseoloides
Eriobotrya hookeriana
Eulophia dabia
Euonymus macrocarpus
Euonymus tibeticus
Euphorbia sikkimensis
Euphorbia stracheyi
Euphrasia bhutanica
Euphrasia simplex
Eutrema himalaicum
Fraxinus micrantha
Gastrochilus affinis
Gastrochilus dasypogon
Gastrochilus distichus
Gentiana depressa
Gentiana ornata
Gentiana prolata
Gentiana stipitata
Geranium himalayense
Geranium nakaoanum
Geranium refractum
Geum sikkimense
Glechoma leucophylla
Goodyera hemsleyana
Goodyera vittata
Gymnanthemum extensum
Haplosphaera
Haplosphaera himalayensis
Hedychium aurantiacum
Hedysarum cachemirianum
Hedysarum campylocarpon
Hedysarum kumaonense
Hedysarum microcalyx
Hedysarum sikkimense
Heracleum canescens
Heracleum lallii
Heracleum wallichii
Herminium macrophyllum
Himalaiella foliosa
Homalium napaulense
Hoya bhutanica
Hoya polyneura
Hoya serpens
Hypericum tenuicaule
Ichnocarpus polyanthus
Ilex pseudo-odorata
Impatiens bicolor
Impatiens falcifer
Impatiens flemingii
Impatiens glandulifera
Impatiens stenantha
Incarvillea younghusbandii
Indoschulzia
Indoschulzia garhwalica
Indoschulzia hameliana
Iris clarkei
Iris milesii
Lagotis clarkei
Lamium tuberosum
Larix griffithii
Larix himalaica
Lavatera kashmiriana
Lessingianthus robustus
Ligularia pachycarpa
Lilium sherriffiae
Lindenbergia bhutanica
Lindera obtusiloba var. heterophylla
Lindera venosa
Liparis perpusilla
Liparis pygmaea
Lloydia flavonutans
Lobelia nubigena
Lonicera cyanocarpa
Lonicera myrtilloides
Lonicera purpurascens
Luculia grandifolia
Machilus edulis
Machilus gammieana
Maddenia himalaica
Mahonia hichsii
Mahonia monyulensis
Mahonia napaulensis
Meconopsis bella
Meconopsis latifolia
Meconopsis simplicifolia
Meconopsis sinuata
Meconopsis villosa
Megacarpaea polyandra
Merrilliopanax alpinus
Microula bhutanica
Monosis talaumifolia
Nervilia macroglossa
Nervilia scottii
Nomocharis aperta
Notholirion macrophyllum
Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata
Omphalogramma elwessiana
Onosma bhutanica
Onosma bracteata
Ophiorrhiza rugosa
Orthosiphon incurvus
Oxytropis cachemiriana
Oxytropis mollis
Oxytropis williamsii
Paroxygraphis
Paroxygraphis sikkimensis
Parrotiopsis
Parrotiopsis involucrata Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana
Pedicularis klotzschii
Pergularia roylei
Pholidota recurva
Picea smithiana
Pinus bhutanica
Pinus gerardiana
Platanthera exelliana
Platanthera juncea
Platanthera leptocaulon
Platanthera sikkimensis
Platycentrum cathcartii
Pleione hookeriana
Pluchea foetida
Pogostemon tuberculosus
Polygonatum brevistylum
Populus jacquemontiana
Potentilla bhutanica
Potentilla bryoides
Potentilla nevadensis
Prangos pabularia
Primula aureata
Primula caveana
Primula deuteronana
Primula edgeworthii
Primula gambeliana
Primula gracilipes
Primula minutissima
Primula obliqua
Primula poluninii
Primula primulina
Primula reidii
Primula reticulata
Primula sessilis
Primula sharmae
Primula sikkimensis
Primula wigramiana
Primula wollastonii
Pseudomertensia racemosa
Putzeysia gemmipara
Pycnoplinthopsis bhutanica
Pyrola sikkimensis
Pyrrosia boothii
Ranunculus adoxifolius
Rhaphidophora glauca
Rheum acuminatum
Rheum nobile
Rheum spiciforme
Rhododendron afghanicum
Rhododendron camelliiflorum
Rhododendron ciliatum
Rhododendron cinnabarinum
Rhododendron collettianum
Rhododendron cowanianum
Rhododendron dalhousieae
Rhododendron falconeri
Rhododendron fulgens
Rhododendron glaucophyllum
Rhododendron grande
Rhododendron griffithianum
Rhododendron hodgsonii
Rhododendron lowndesii
Rhododendron nivale
Rhododendron pendulum
Rhododendron setosum
Rhododendron thomsonii
Rhododendron triflorum
Rhododendron virgatum
Rhododendron wightii
Rodgersia nepalensis
Rosa webbiana
Roscoea capitata
Roylea cinerea
Rubus niveus
Salix bhutanensis
Salix daltoniana
Salix plectilis
Salvia sikkimensis
Sarcococca saligna
Saurauia fasciculata
Saussurea abnormis
Saussurea albescens
Saussurea bhutkesh
Saussurea candolleana
Saussurea chrysotricha
Saussurea conica
Saussurea costus
Saussurea crispa
Saussurea dhwojii
Saussurea donkiah
Saussurea forrestii
Saussurea gossypiphora
Saussurea graminifolia
Saussurea heteromalla
Saussurea hookeri
Saussurea kanaii
Saussurea laminamaensis
Saussurea laneana
Saussurea lappa
Saussurea leontodontoides
Saussurea linearifolia
Saussurea namikawae
Saussurea nepalensis
Saussurea nishiokae
Saussurea pachyneura
Saussurea piptathera
Saussurea platyphyllaria
Saussurea polystichoides
Saussurea simpsoniana
Saussurea spicata
Saussurea stafleuana
Saussurea stracheyana
Saussurea sughoo
Saussurea taraxacifolia
Saussurea topkegolensis
Saussurea tridactyla
Saussurea uniflora
Saussurea werneroides
Saussurea yakla
Saxifraga engleriana
Saxifraga poluniniana
Saxifraga roylei
Scrophularia sikkimensis
Senecio mortonii
Sinarundinaria maling
Sorbus cashmiriana
Sorbus hedlundii
Sorbus kurzii
Sorbus lanata
Soroseris pumila
Spathoglottis ixioides
Staphylea emodi
Strobilanthes lachenensis
Strobilanthes laevigatus
Strobilanthes thomsonii
Strobilanthes urticifolia
Sunipia paleacea
Swertia hookeri
Swertia multicaulis
Symplocos pyrifolia
Synotis tetrantha
Syringa villosa ssp. emodi
Tanacetum atkinsonii
Tanacetum gossypinum
Thalictrum reniforme
Thesium emodi
Tipularia josephi
Trachycarpus takil
Vandopsis undulata
Veronica deltigera
Veronica lanuginosa
Viola kunawurensis
Viola wallichiana
Zanthoxylum nepalense


Summary

Included here is the Himalayan Mountain Range (usually referred to as the Himalayas) above about 1000 m. It is the highest and one of the youngest mountain ranges on the planet.

Of the endemic and near endemic vascular plants so far recorded there are about 390 species in 206 genera and 70 families. There are 8 endemic genera (marked red) but no endemic families although species of family Biebersteiniaceae are confined to Central Asia. However, this list is probably incomplete so further information is required.

References

Behera, M. D., Kushwaha, S. P. S. & Roy, P. S. 2002. High plant endemism in an Indian hotspot - eastern Himalaya. Biodiversity and Conservation, 11: 669-682.

Grierson, A. J. C. & Long, D. G. 1983. Flora of Bhutan. Volume 1. Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh.

Hara, H. 1972. Corresponding taxa in North America, Japan, and the Himalayas. In: Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Evolution. Ed. D. H. Valentine. Academic Press.

Jain, S. K. & Rao, R. R. 1983. An assessment of the threatened plants of India. Botanical Survey of India. Botanic Garden Howrah.

Kanai, H. 1963. Phytogeographical observations on the Japano-Himalayan Elements. Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Sect 3. Bot. 8: 305-339.

Malik, N. Z., Arshad, M. & Mirza, S. N. 2007. Phytosociological attributes of different plant communities of Pir Chinasi Hills of Azad Jammu and Kasmir. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9: 569-574.

Nayar, M. P. 1996. “Hot Spots” of endemic plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute. Palode, Thiruvananthapuram.

Meusel, H. 1971. Mediterranean elements in the flora and vegetation of the west Himalayas. In: Plant Life of South-West Asia. Eds. P. H. Davies, P. C. Harper and I. C. Hedge. The Botanical Society of Edinburgh.

Polunin, O. & Stainton, A. 1984. Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford University Press.

Rafiq, R. A. (undated). Report on the botanical studies in Palas Valley (1992-1995). National Herbarium, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. Report prepared for the Himalayan Jungle Project, Palas Valley, Kohistan.

Rau, M. A. 1974 Vegetation and Phytogeography of Himalaya. In: Ecology and Biogeography in India. Ed. M. S. Mani. Dr W. Junk Publishers. The Hague.