Included here is the Himalayan Mountain Range (usually referred to as the Himalayas) above about 1000 m. It is the highest and one of the youngest mountain ranges on the planet.
Of the endemic and near endemic vascular plants so far recorded there are about 390 species in 206 genera and 70 families. There are 8 endemic genera (marked red) but no endemic families although species of family Biebersteiniaceae are confined to Central Asia. However, this list is probably incomplete so further information is required.
Behera, M. D., Kushwaha, S. P. S. & Roy, P. S. 2002. High plant endemism in an Indian hotspot - eastern Himalaya. Biodiversity and Conservation, 11: 669-682.
Grierson, A. J. C. & Long, D. G. 1983. Flora of Bhutan. Volume 1. Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh.
Hara, H. 1972. Corresponding taxa in North America, Japan, and the Himalayas. In: Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Evolution. Ed. D. H. Valentine. Academic Press.
Jain, S. K. & Rao, R. R. 1983. An assessment of the threatened plants of India. Botanical Survey of India. Botanic Garden Howrah.
Kanai, H. 1963. Phytogeographical observations on the Japano-Himalayan Elements. Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Sect 3. Bot. 8: 305-339.
Malik, N. Z., Arshad, M. & Mirza, S. N. 2007. Phytosociological attributes of different plant communities of Pir Chinasi Hills of Azad Jammu and Kasmir. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9: 569-574.
Nayar, M. P. 1996. “Hot Spots” of endemic plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute. Palode, Thiruvananthapuram.
Meusel, H. 1971. Mediterranean elements in the flora and vegetation of the west Himalayas. In: Plant Life of South-West Asia. Eds. P. H. Davies, P. C. Harper and I. C. Hedge. The Botanical Society of Edinburgh.
Polunin, O. & Stainton, A. 1984. Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford University Press.
Rafiq, R. A. (undated). Report on the botanical studies in Palas Valley (1992-1995). National Herbarium, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. Report prepared for the Himalayan Jungle Project, Palas Valley, Kohistan.
Rau, M. A. 1974 Vegetation and Phytogeography of Himalaya. In: Ecology and Biogeography in India. Ed. M. S. Mani. Dr W. Junk Publishers. The Hague.