Endemics in Family Order

Acanthaceae
Strobilanthes oliganthus

Actinidiaceae
Actinidia arguta var hypoleuca

Adoxaceae
Viburnum carlesii

Amaranthaceae
Chenopodium bryoniifolium
Nothoscordum inutile

Amaryllidaceae
Lycoris flavescens
Lycoris haywardii
Lycoris koreana
Lycoris sanguinea
Lycoris squamigera
Lycoris uydoensis

Apiaceae
Apodicarpum
Apodicarpum ikenoi
Apium ikenoi
Bupleurum nipponicum
Chamaele decumbens
Dystaenia ibukiensis
Heracleum moellendorffii
Ligusticum tsusimense
Pimpinella nikoensis
Pternopetalum tanakae
Pterygopleurum
Pterygopleurum neurophyllum
Sanicula kaiensis
Sanicula tuberculata
Spuriopimpinella calycina

Apocynaceae
Apocynum venetum ssp basikurumon
Trachelospermum asiaticum

Araceae
Amorphophallus kiusianus

Araliaceae
Aralia glabra
Chengiopanax sciadophylloides
Echinopanax horridus ssp japonicus
Gamblea innovans
Hydrocotyle ramiflora
Hydrocotyle yabei
Kalopanax lutchuensis
Panax japonicus

Arecaceae
Trachycarpus fortunei

Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochia onoei
Asarum sieboldii fo maculatum

Asparagaceae
Asparagus kiusianus

Asteraceae
Arnica mallotopus
Aster hayatae
Carpesium rosulatum
Cirsium rhinoceros
Crepidiastrum denticulatum
Diaspananthus
Diaspananthus uniflorus
Doellingeria dimorphophylla
Doellingeria komonoensis
Doellingeria rugulosa
Doellingeria sekimotoi
Doellingeria sohayakiensis
Emilia sonchifolia var javanica
Farfugium hiberniflorum
Heteropappus chejuensis
Heteropappus rupicola
Hieracium krameri
Hololeion fauriei
Hololeion krameri
Koyamacalia adenostyloides
Koyamacalia pseudotaimingasa
Koyamacalia yatabei
Lontopodium hallaisanese
Miricacalia makineana
Miyamayomena koraiensis
Myriactis japonensis
Nabalus acerifolius
Nabalus nipponicus
Nipponanthemum
Nipponanthemum nipponicum
Prenanthes acerifolia
Prenanthes tanakae
Saussurea stenolepis
Synurus excelsus
Synurus palmatopinnatifidus
Synurus pungens
Taraxacum hallaisanensis
Youngia yoshinoi

Berberidaceae
Achlys triphylla ssp japonica
Berberis amurensis
Ranzania
Ranzania japonica

Betulaceae
Alnus fauriei
Alnus firma Japan
Alnus hakkodensis
Alnus matsumurae
Alnus paniculata
Alnus serrulatoides
Alnus sieboldiana
Betula chichibuensis
Betula ermanii
Betula globispica
Betula grossa
Carpinus eximia
Carpinus japonica

Boraginaceae
Ancistrocarya
Ancistrocarya japonica

Brassicaceae
Arabis serrata var hallaisanensis
Eutrema tenue
Rorippa nikkoensis

Burmanniaceae
Oxygyne hyodoi
Thismia abei
Thismia tuberculata

Buxaceae
Buxus microphylla

Campanulaceae
Adenophora tashiroi
Campanula punctata

Cannabaceae
Celtis bungeana var jessoensis
Celtis choseniana

Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera vidalii
Patrinia triloba
Scabiosa japonica
Scabiosa tschiliensis var tschiliensis
Valeriana flaccidissima
Weigela subsessilis

Caryophyllaceae
Cerastium schizopetalum
Minuartia hondoensis
Pseudostellaria palibiniana
Silene aomorensis
Silense fascciculata

Celastraceae
Celastrus stephanotiifolius
Parnassia alpicola
Tripterygium doianum

Cercidiphyllaceae
Cercidiphyllum magnificum

Clethraceae
Clethra barbinervis

Coriariaceae
Coriaria japonica

Cucurbitaceae
Actinostemma tenerum var tenerum
Melothria japonica
Trichosanthes multiloba

Cupressaceae
Chamaecyparis obtusa var obtusa
Chamaecyparis pisifera
Thujopsis
Thujopsis dolabrata
Thuya standishii

Diapensiaceae
Shortia uniflora

Ericaceae
Chiogenes hispidula ssp japonica
Epigaea asiatiea
Phyllodoce nipponica
Rhododendron tschonoskii
Rhododendron weyrichii
Tripetaleia
Tripetaleia bracteata
Tsusiophyllum
Tsusiophyllum japonicum
Vaccinium japonicum

Eriocaulaceae
Eriocaulon cauliferum

Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia pekinensis ssp fauriei

Eupteleaceae
Euptelea polyandra

Fabaceae
Astragalus adsurgens
Cladrastis sikokiana
Dumasia truncata
Echinosophora koreensis
Euchresta japonica
Lespedeza homoloba
Lespedeza maximowiczii
Oxytropis japonica
Phaseolodes japonicum
Rhynchosia acuminatifolia
Trifolium lupinaster
Wisteria floribunda

Fagaceae
Castanea crenata
Fagus japonica
Shiia cuspidata

Geraniaceae
Geranium shikokianum var quelpaertense
Geranium tripartitum
Opithandra primuloides

Haloragaceae
Haloragis walkeri
Myriophyllum oguraense

Hamamelidaceae
Hamamelis japonica

Hydrangeaceae
Cardiandra alternifolia
Deinanthe
Deinanthe bifida
Kirengeshoma
Kirengeshoma koreana
Philadelphus satsumi
Platycrater arguta
Schizophragma hydrangeoides

Hydrocharitaceae
Blyxa japonica

Hymenophyllaceae
Trichomanes titibuensis

Isoetaceae
Isoetes japonica

Iteaceae
Itea japonica

Juglandaceae
Juglans ailanthifolia

Lamiaceae
Callicarpa mollis
Chelonopsis moschata var longipes
Clinopodium macranthum
Collinsonia japonica
Dysophylla yatabeana
Glechoma subsessilis
Isodon japonicus var japonicus
Lamium ambiguum
Lamium humile
Meehania montis-koyae
Mentha japonica
Mosla japonica
Prunellopsis prunelliformis
Satureja micrantha
Teucrium japonicum

Lauraceae
Lindera praecox
Lindera sericea

Lentibulariaceae
Pinguicula ramosa
Utricularia aurea

Liliaceae
Alectorurus
Alectorurus yedoensis
Erythronium japonicum
Fritillaria amabilis
Fritillaria japonica
Siraitos koidzumianus
Terauchia anemarrhenifolia
Tulipa erythronioides

Loganiaceae
Gardneria nutans

Loranthaceae
Loranthus tanakae
Taxillus kaempferi

Lycopodiaceae
Lycopodium chinense

Lythraceae
Lagerstroemia fauriei
Rotala indica
Trapa incisa

Magnoliaceae
Magnolia salicifolia
Oyama sieboldii
Yulania kobus
Yulania stellata

Melanthiaceae
Chionographis japonica
Kinugasa
Kinugasa japonica

Melastomataceae
Microlepis yakusimensis

Moraceae
Broussonetia kaempferi
Morus cathayana var cathayana

Oleaceae
Abeliophyllum
Abeliophyllum distichum
Forsythia japonica fo ovata
Forsythia koreana
Fraxinus sieboldiana
Ligustrum salicinum
Rangium japonicum

Ophioglossaceae
Botrychium nipponicum
Ophioglossum kawamurae

Orchidaceae
Androcorys japonensis
Apostasia wallichii var nipponica
Calanthe coreana
Calanthe oblanceolata
Cheirostylis okabeana
Cypripedium debile
Cypripedium micranthum
Dactylostalix ringens
Didiciea japonica
Ephippianthus sawadanus
Kuhlhasseltia nakaiana
Kuhlhasseltia yakushimensis
Luisia teres
Neottia makinoana
Nervilia nipponica
Oberonia japonica
Odontochilus hatusimanus
Oreorchis patens ssp coreana
Sarcanthus scolopendrifolius
Stigmatodactylus sikokianus
Taeniophyllum glandulosum
Thrixspermum japonicum
Tipularia japonica
Tropidia nipponica
Tulotis iinumae
Vexillabium
Vexillabium nakaianum

Orobanchaceae
Euphrasia coreana
Lathraea japonica
Monochasma japonica

Papaveraceae
Hylomecon hylomeconoides
Hylomecon japonica
Pteridophyllum
Pteridophyllum racemosum

Petrosaviaceae
Japonolirion
Japonolirion osense

Phrymaceae
Mazus miquelii

Pinaceae
Abies homolepis
Abies koreana
Abies mariesii
Larix kaempferi
Picea alcoquiana var acicularis
Picea alcoquiana var reflexa
Picea bicolor
Picea koyamae
Picea maximowiczii
Picea polita
Pinus armandii var amamiana
Pinus densiflora
Pinus parviflora
Pinus sieboldii
Pinus thunbergii
Pinus veitchii
Pseudotsuga japonica
Tsuga diversifolia

Pittosporaceae
Deinostema adenocaula
Pittosporum illicioides
Plantago hakusanensis
Pseudolysimachion kiusianum

Poaceae
Agrostis nipponensis
Brachyelytrum japonicum
Diarrhena japonica
Festuca takedana
Hakonechloa
Hakonechloa macra
Helictotrichon hideoi
Hystrix japonica
Puccinellia nipponica
Sasa nipponica

Polygalaceae
Polygala reinii
Rumex madaio

Polypodiaceae
Grammitis sakaguchiana
Pleopeltis onoei
Polypodium someyae

Potamogetonaceae
Potamogetum fryeri

Primulaceae
Lysimachia acroadenia
Lysimachia leucantha

Pteridaceae
Cheilanthes krameri

Ranunculaceae
Aconitum chiisanense
Actaea macrophylla
Anemonopsis
Anemonopsis macrophylla
Callianthemum insigne var hondoense
Cimicifuga chinensis
Eranthis pinnatifida
Glaucidium
Glaucidium palmatum
Hepatica insularis
Pulsatilla nipponica
Ranunculus borealis
Thalictrum uchiyamai
Trollius hondoensis

Rhamnaceae
Rhamnus taquetil

Rosaceae
Amelanchier asiatica
Aruncus aethusifolius
Cerasus jamasakura
Chaenomeles japonica
Fragaria yezoensis
Photinia glabra
Photinia villosa var villosa
Stephanandra incisa
Stephanandra tanakae

Rubiaceae
Damnacanthus macrophyllus
Galium pusillum
Lasianthus japonicus ssp japonicus
Leptodermis pulchella
Mitchella undulata
Mussaenda shikokiana
Pseudopyxis
Pseudopyxis depressa
Pseudopyxis heterophylla
Rubia hexaphylla
Uncaria rhynchophylla

Rutaceae
Zanthoxylum fauriei

Salicaceae
Salix blinii

Santalaceae
Buckleya lanceolata

Sapindaceae
Acer palmatum
Aesculus turbinata

Saxifragaceae
Boykinia lycoctonifolia
Peltoboykinia
Peltoboykinia tellimoides
Peltoboykinia watanabei
Rodgersia podophylla
Tanakaea radicans

Schisandraceae
Schisandra repanda

Sciadopityaceae
Sciadopitys
Sciadopitys verticillata

Scrophulariaceae
Buddleja japonica
Scrophularia kakudensis

Solanaceae
Leucophysalis savatieri
Physalis chamaesarachoides
Scopolia japonica

Styracaceae
Pterostyrax hispidus
Styrax shiraiana

Symplocaceae
Symplocos coreana
Symplocos tanakana

Taxaceae
Torreya nucifera

Theaceae
Camellia japonica var rusticana
Stewartia monadelpha

Thymelaeaceae
Wikstroemia trichotoma

Urticaceae
Laportea cuspidata

Violaceae
Viola eizanensis

Zingiberaceae
Zingiber mioga

Zosteraceae
Zostera caulescens


Endemics in Alphabetical Order

Abeliophyllum
Abeliophyllum distichum
Abies homolepis
Abies koreana
Abies mariesii
Acer palmatum
Achlys triphylla ssp japonica
Aconitum chiisanense
Actaea macrophylla
Actinidia arguta var hypoleuca
Actinostemma tenerum var tenerum
Adenophora tashiroi
Aesculus turbinata
Agrostis nipponensis
Alectorurus
Alectorurus yedoensis
Alnus fauriei
Alnus firma Japan
Alnus hakkodensis
Alnus matsumurae
Alnus paniculata
Alnus serrulatoides
Alnus sieboldiana
Amelanchier asiatica
Amorphophallus kiusianus
Ancistrocarya
Ancistrocarya japonica
Androcorys japonensis
Anemonopsis
Anemonopsis macrophylla
Apium ikenoi
Apocynum venetum ssp basikurumon
Apodicarpum
Apodicarpum ikenoi
Apostasia wallichii var nipponica
Arabis serrata var hallaisanensis
Aralia glabra
Aristolochia onoei
Arnica mallotopus
Aruncus aethusifolius
Asarum sieboldii fo maculatum
Asparagus kiusianus
Aster hayatae
Astragalus adsurgens
Berberis amurensis
Betula chichibuensis
Betula ermanii
Betula globispica
Betula grossa
Blyxa japonica
Botrychium nipponicum
Boykinia lycoctonifolia
Brachyelytrum japonicum
Broussonetia kaempferi
Buckleya lanceolata
Buddleja japonica
Bupleurum nipponicum
Buxus microphylla
Calanthe coreana
Calanthe oblanceolata
Callianthemum insigne var hondoense
Callicarpa mollis
Camellia japonica var rusticana
Campanula punctata
Cardiandra alternifolia
Carpesium rosulatum
Carpinus eximia
Carpinus japonica
Castanea crenata
Celastrus stephanotiifolius
Celtis bungeana var jessoensis
Celtis choseniana
Cerastium schizopetalum
Cerasus jamasakura
Cercidiphyllum magnificum
Chaenomeles japonica
Chamaecyparis obtusa var obtusa
Chamaecyparis pisifera
Chamaele decumbens
Cheilanthes krameri
Cheirostylis okabeana
Chelonopsis moschata var longipes
Chengiopanax sciadophylloides
Chenopodium bryoniifolium
Chiogenes hispidula ssp japonica
Chionographis japonica
Cimicifuga chinensis
Cirsium rhinoceros
Cladrastis sikokiana
Clethra barbinervis
Clinopodium macranthum
Collinsonia japonica
Coriaria japonica
Crepidiastrum denticulatum
Cypripedium debile
Cypripedium micranthum
Dactylostalix ringens
Damnacanthus macrophyllus
Deinanthe
Deinanthe bifida
Deinostema adenocaula
Diarrhena japonica
Diaspananthus
Diaspananthus uniflorus
Didiciea japonica
Doellingeria dimorphophylla
Doellingeria komonoensis
Doellingeria rugulosa
Doellingeria sekimotoi
Doellingeria sohayakiensis
Dumasia truncata
Dysophylla yatabeana
Dystaenia ibukiensis
Echinopanax horridus ssp japonicus
Echinosophora koreensis
Emilia sonchifolia var. javanica
Ephippianthus sawadanus
Epigaea asiatiea
Eranthis pinnatifida
Eriocaulon cauliferum
Erythronium japonicum
Euchresta japonica
Euphorbia pekinensis ssp fauriei
Euphrasia coreana
Euptelea polyandra
Eutrema tenue
Fagus japonica
Farfugium hiberniflorum
Festuca takedana
Forsythia japonica fo ovata
Forsythia koreana
Fragaria yezoensis
Fraxinus sieboldiana
Fritillaria amabilis
Fritillaria japonica
Galium pusillum
Gamblea innovans
Gardneria nutans
Geranium shikokianum var quelpaertense
Geranium tripartitum
Glaucidium
Glaucidium palmatum
Glechoma subsessilis
Grammitis sakaguchiana
Hakonechloa
Hakonechloa macra
Haloragis walkeri
Hamamelis japonica
Helictotrichon hideoi
Hepatica insularis
Heracleum moellendorffii
Heteropappus chejuensis
Heteropappus rupicola
Hieracium krameri
Hololeion fauriei
Hololeion krameri
Hydrocotyle ramiflora
Hydrocotyle yabei
Hylomecon hylomeconoides
Hylomecon japonica
Hystrix japonica
Isodon japonicus var japonicus
Isoetes japonica
Itea japonica
Japonolirion
Japonolirion osense
Juglans ailanthifolia
Kalopanax lutchuensis
Kinugasa
Kinugasa japonica
Kirengeshoma
Kirengeshoma koreana
Koyamacalia adenostyloides
Koyamacalia pseudotaimingasa
Koyamacalia yatabei
Kuhlhasseltia nakaiana
Kuhlhasseltia yakushimensis
Lagerstroemia fauriei
Lamium ambiguum
Lamium humile
Laportea cuspidata
Larix kaempferi
Lasianthus japonicus ssp japonicus
Lathraea japonica
Leptodermis pulchella
Lespedeza homoloba
Lespedeza maximowiczii
Leucophysalis savatieri
Ligusticum tsusimense
Ligustrum salicinum
Lindera praecox
Lindera sericea
Lonicera vidalii
Lontopodium hallaisanese
Loranthus tanakae
Luisia teres
Lycopodium chinense
Lycoris flavescens
Lycoris haywardii
Lycoris koreana
Lycoris sanguinea
Lycoris squamigera
Lycoris uydoensis
Lysimachia acroadenia
Lysimachia leucantha
Magnolia salicifolia
Mazus miquelii
Meehania montis-koyae
Melothria japonica
Mentha japonica
Microlepis yakusimensis
Minuartia hondoensis
Miricacalia makineana
Mitchella undulata
Miyamayomena koraiensis
Monochasma japonica
Morus cathayana var cathayana
Mosla japonica
Mussaenda shikokiana
Myriactis japonensis
Myriophyllum oguraense
Nabalus acerifolius
Nabalus nipponicus
Neottia makinoana
Nervilia nipponica
Nipponanthemum
Nipponanthemum nipponicum
Nothoscordum inutile
Oberonia japonica
Odontochilus hatusimanus
Ophioglossum kawamurae
Opithandra primuloides
Oreorchis patens ssp coreana
Oxygyne hyodoi
Oxytropis japonica
Oyama sieboldii
Panax japonicus
Parnassia alpicola
Patrinia triloba
Peltoboykinia
Peltoboykinia tellimoides
Peltoboykinia watanabei
Phaseolodes japonicum
Philadelphus satsumi
Photinia glabra
Photinia villosa var villosa
Phyllodoce nipponica
Physalis chamaesarachoides
Picea alcoquiana var acicularis
Picea alcoquiana var reflexa
Picea bicolor
Picea koyamae
Picea maximowiczii
Picea polita
Pimpinella nikoensis
Pinguicula ramosa
Pinus armandii var amamiana
Pinus densiflora
Pinus parviflora
Pinus sieboldii
Pinus thunbergii
Pinus veitchii
Pittosporum illicioides
Plantago hakusanensis
Platycrater arguta
Pleopeltis onoei
Polygala reinii
Polypodium someyae
Potamogetum fryeri
Prenanthes acerifolia
Prenanthes tanakae
Prunellopsis prunelliformis
Pseudolysimachion kiusianum
Pseudopyxis
Pseudopyxis depressa
Pseudopyxis heterophylla
Pseudostellaria palibiniana
Pseudotsuga japonica
Pteridophyllum
Pteridophyllum racemosum
Pternopetalum tanakae
Pterostyrax hispidus
Pterygopleurum
Pterygopleurum neurophyllum
Puccinellia nipponica
Pulsatilla nipponica
Rangium japonicum
Ranunculus borealis
Ranzania
Ranzania japonica
Rhamnus taquetil
Rhododendron tschonoskii
Rhododendron weyrichii
Rhynchosia acuminatifolia
Rodgersia podophylla
Rorippa nikkoensis
Rotala indica
Rubia hexaphylla
Rumex madaio
Salix blinii
Sanicula kaiensis
Sanicula tuberculata
Sarcanthus scolopendrifolius
Sasa nipponica
Satureja micrantha
Saussurea stenolepis
Scabiosa japonica
Scabiosa tschiliensis var tschiliensis
Schisandra repanda
Schizophragma hydrangeoides
Sciadopitys
Sciadopitys verticillata
Scopolia japonica
Scrophularia kakudensis
Shiia cuspidata
Shortia uniflora
Silene aomorensis
Silense fascciculata
Siraitos koidzumianus
Spuriopimpinella calycina
Stephanandra incisa
Stephanandra tanakae
Stewartia monadelpha
Stigmatodactylus sikokianus
Strobilanthes oliganthus
Styrax shiraiana
Symplocos coreana
Symplocos tanakana
Synurus excelsus
Synurus palmatopinnatifidus
Synurus pungens
Taeniophyllum glandulosum
Tanakaea radicans
Taraxacum hallaisanensis
Taxillus kaempferi
Terauchia anemarrhenifolia
Teucrium japonicum
Thalictrum uchiyamai
Thismia abei
Thismia tuberculata
Thrixspermum japonicum
Thujopsis
Thujopsis dolabrata
Thuya standishii
Tipularia japonica
Torreya nucifera
Trachelospermum asiaticum
Trachycarpus fortunei
Trapa incisa
Trichomanes titibuensis
Trichosanthes multiloba
Trifolium lupinaster
Tripetaleia
Tripetaleia bracteata
Tripterygium doianum
Trollius hondoensis
Tropidia nipponica
Tsuga diversifolia
Tsusiophyllum
Tsusiophyllum japonicum
Tulipa erythronioides
Tulotis iinumae
Uncaria rhynchophylla
Utricularia aurea
Vaccinium japonicum
Valeriana flaccidissima
Vexillabium
Vexillabium nakaianum
Viburnum carlesii
Viola eizanensis
Weigela subsessilis
Wikstroemia trichotoma
Wisteria floribunda
Youngia yoshinoi
Yulania kobus
Yulania stellata
Zanthoxylum fauriei
Zingiber mioga
Zostera caulescens


Summary

Included here is Honshu, Kyushu, the southwestern part of Hokkaido, the smaller islands of Gotto-retto, Tanega, Tsushima and Yaku, and most of the Korean Peninsula.

Of the endemic and near endemic vascular plants so far recorded there are about 355 species in 290 genera and 94 families. There are 23 endemic genera (marked red) and one endemic family, the Sciadopityaceae (marked green). However, the Cercidiphyllaceae and Eupteleaceae are confined to Eastern Asia.

References

Hara, H. 1972. Corresponding taxa in North America, Japan, and the Himalayas. In: Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Evolution. Ed. D. H. Valentine. Academic Press.

Kanai, H. 1963. Phytogeographical observations on the Japano-Himalayan Elements. Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Sect 3. Bot. 8: 305-339.

Numata, M. (ed). 1974. The flora and vegetation of Japan. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.

Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan. Smithsonian Institution. Washington D.C.

Sun, B. & Stuessy, T. F. 1998. Preliminary observations on the evolution of the endemic angiosperms of Ullung Island, Korea. In: Evolution and Speciation of Island Plants. Eds. T. S. Stuessy and M. Ono. Cambridge University Press.