Included here is the Llanos lowland region extending through northern Colombia and western Venezuela. It also extends along the coastal zone of Venezuela from the Paraguana Peninsula west to the start of the Amacuro Delta and incorporates the middle reaches of the Orinoco River.
Of the endemic and near endemic vascular plants so far recorded there are about 29 species in 26 genera and 15 families but no endemic genera.
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Burkart, A. 1975. Evolution of grasses and grasslands in South America. Taxon, 24: 53-66.
Hammen, T. van der. 1979. History of the flora, vegetation and climate in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental during the last five million years. In: Tropical Botany. Eds. K. Larsen and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. Academic Press.
Huber, O., Duno, de Stefano, R., Aymard, G. & Riina, R. 2006. Flora and Vegetation of the Venezuelan Llanos: A Review. In: Neotropical Savannas and Seasonally Dry Forests. Plant Diversity, Biogeography, and Conservation. Eds. R. T. Pennington, G. P. Lewis and J. A. Ratter. Taylor & Francis.
Steyermark, J. A. 1979. Plant refuge and dispersal centres in Venezuela: their relict and endemic elements. In: Tropical Botany. Eds. K. Larsen and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. Academic Press.