Pampean BioProvince

This BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) comprises the pampas and campos regions of South America and includes the central parts of Argentina, all of Uraguay and the southern extremities of Brazil. The geology is complex and varied, while the temperate climate is semi-arid or continental and much of the precipitation falls as snow but summers can be warm to hot depending on latitude. The southern pampas grasslands are estimated to contain about 1000 species of vascular plants but further north in the Brazilian campos there is estimated to be about 3000 species. Grasses make up the bulk of the flora with about 190 native species and 40 introduced species. The most important genera are Aristida, Melica, Piptochaetium, Poa and Stipa, but others such as Bothriochloa, Briza, Eragrostis, Panicum, Paspalum and Sporobolus are also important. Among the forbs, the Asteraceae has the biggest representation of species with the most important genera being Baccharis, Eupatorium, Hypochoeris and Vernonia. There are over 2000 endemic vascular plant species but just a few endemic genera. The typical plant formations include rolling pampa, flooding pampa, inland pampa, southern pampa, mesopotamic pampa, southern campos and northern campos.

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Endemic Vascular Plant Flora
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status