New Zealand Subantarctic Islands Maritime Megaherb and Tussock Grassland

This spectacular community of the coastal slopes is dominated by the endemic megaherbs Anisotome latifolia (Ascelpiadaceae) and Stibocarpa polaris (Araliaceae) and the endemic tussock grass Bulbinella rossii (Asphodelaceae). Other important species include Carex trifida, Hebe elliptica, Poa foliosa, P. litorosa, and endemics such as Gentiana concinna (Gentianaceae), Geum parviflorum var. albiflorum (Rosaceae), Hebe benthamica (Plantaginaceae) and Stellaria decipiens (Caryophyllaceae).


New Zealand Subantarctic Islands Coastal Rock Formations

Heavily influenced by sea spray these formations are dominated by lichens and compact cushion plants such as the moss Muelleriella crassifolia, together with cushion or mat forming higher plants such as Colobanthus muscoides, Crassula moschata and Leptinella plumose. They also include grasses like Puccinellia chathamica, and on Macquarie Island the endemic Puccinellia macquariensis (Poaceae). The maritime rocky zones on Campbell Island provide habitat for various other endemics such as Acaena minor subsp. antarctica (Rosaceae), Epilobium confertifolium (Onagraceae), Poa ramosissima (Poaceae) while endemics found in such areas on Auckland Island include Cotula lanata, C. plumose (Asteraceae), Plantago triantha (Plantaginaceae), Puccinellia antipoda (Poaceae) and Ranunculus subscaposus (Ranunculaceae).


New Zealand Subantarctic Islands Rush-Sedge-Moss Mires

These wetland areas are dominated by Juncus scheuschzeroides, the endemic Isolepis aucklandica (Cyperaceae) and moss genera such as Drepanocladus and Sphagnum. Other wetland endemics include Callitriche aucklandica (Callitrichaceae).


New Zealand Subantarctic Islands Montane Megaherb Meadows and Feldmark

On Auckland and Campbell Island these upland areas are dominated by endemic megaherbs such as Anisotoma antipoda (Asclepiadaceae), Pleurophyllum criniferum, P. hookeri and P. speciosum (Asteraceae). The soils, which are composed of infertile mineral peat, provide habitat for other endemics such as Acaena minor subsp. minor (Rosaceae), Deschampsia gracillima, Poa breviglumis (Poaceae), Ranunculus pinquis (Ranunculaceae), Uncinia hookeri (Cyperaceae), and the endemic cushion plant Azorella macquariensis (Araliaceae) on Macquarrie Island. On the windswept higher parts of Macquarrie Island feldmark has developed in which Azorella macquariensis is the dominant vascular plant, but much of the island’s feldmark is bryophyte dominated with species such as Dictrichum strictum and Racomitrium crispulum.


New Zealand Subantarctic Islands High Bulbinella Formations

On the more exposed summits, Agrostis subulata and Deschampsia gracillima join the endemic Bulbinella rossii (Asphodelaceae) as the dominant species, while among other upland species are endemics such as Abrotanella rosulata (Asteraceae), Colobanthus hookeri (Caryophyllaceae), Myosotis antarctica (Boraginaceae), Plantago aucklandica (Plantaginaceae) and Schizeilema reniforme (Apiaceae). In addition to Bulbinella rossii, Mausippospermum gracile can dominates the cold slopes. Other important components of these slopes on Campbell Island, for example, include Ranunculus subantarcticus, Cardamine subcarnosa and the endemic Hierochloe brunonis (Poaceae). Characteristic species of the flushed slopes are Centrolepis pallida, Rostkovia magellanica and the endemic Abrotanella spathulata (Asteraceae) and Gentiana antarctica (Gentianaceae).


New Zealand Subantarctic Islands Myrsine-Coprosma Shrubland

Confined to the sunny slopes on deep peat, these shrublands are dominated by Myrsine divaricata and the endemic Coprosma cuneata while other important species include the fern Polystichum vestitum.


New Zealand Subantarctic Islands Dracophyllum Dwarf Forest

In some of the sunny more sheltered lowlands of Campbell Island, dwarf forests of Dracophyllum longifolium and the endemic D. scoparium (Ericaceae) can be found. These provide habitat for a variety of lichens, mosses and ferns such as Hymenophyllum multifidum and Grammitis magellanica. At slightly higher altitudes these dwarf forests turn into Dracophyllum scrublands, while on exposed plateaus the shrubs become prostrate and are joined by the endemic tussock grass Chlionochloa antarctica (Poaceae).


New Zealand Subantarctic Islands Metrosideros Forest

The Auckland Islands support the most southerly forests in the region. These are dominated by Metrosideros umbellate, while other species include the primitive Tmesipteris tannensis, various ferns such as Blechnum durum, Grammitis billardieri, Hymenophyllum bivalve and Phymatodes diversifolium, the orchids Acianthus viridis, Caladenia carnea and Chiloglottis cornuta, and the endemic grass Uncinia aucklandica (Poaceae).

Further information required.



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