Euxine-Colchic BioProvince

This BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) comprises a zone along the southern part of the Black Sea most of which is in Turkey but extends west along the Black Sea shores of Bulgaria as far as the Gulf of Burgas. This part has been described as the Euxinic zone. In the east it includes the western Caucasus in western Georgia and the coastal zone as far north as Tuapse. This is the so-called Colchic zone. From a geological perspective the area is relatively young comprising an expanding coastal plain that began to form some 6000 years ago in the middle Holocene period. The climate can be described as a sub-Mediterranean and humid but can be divided into the highly humid eastern or Colchic zone and the less humid western or Euxinic zone. This BioProvince has over 300 endemic plants and at least 5 endemic genera. Limestone habitats are particularly rich in endemic species with possibly up to 70% of species being endemic. Many of the plant are ancient relicts and are thought to be descendents of an ancient boreal flora of the Tertiary period that once covered large parts of temperate Eurasia.

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Endemic Vascular Plant Flora
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status