Hyrcanian BioProvince

This BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) comprises the relict forests of coastal plains extending in a crescent around the south and southwest of the Caspian Sea including the area around Lenkoran, Gilan and Mazanderan. It also extends up the northwestern slopes of the Talish Mountains and the northern slopes of the Elburz Mountains. The area has a complex and varied geology and a strange semi-subtropical climate with summer droughts and heavy precipitation in some seasons although the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains where relative humidity is constantly high has been described as one of the world’s ‘ever-wet’ areas. The flora includes at least 138 endemic or near endemic species but no endemic genera.

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Endemic Vascular Plant Flora
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status