Iberian BioProvince

With the exception of a small part assigned to the Atlantic European BioProvince in the northwest and a small part assigned to the Southwestern Mediterranean BioProvince in the south, this BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) includes most of the Iberian Peninsula. It is predominantly composed of a core of hard, ancient Palaezoic crystalline and partly metamorphosed rocks, but much of this is overlayed by sedimentary rocks of Tertiary, Cretaceous and Triassic ages. The climate is predominantly Mediterranean in character with mild, moist winters and sunny often-cloudless summers. The flora has a few endemic genera including as Castrilanthemum, Guiraoa, Gyrocaryum, Guillanea, Hispidella, Lafuentea, Prolonga and Rothmaleria, but a very large number of endemic species. It has been estimated that of the 5660 vascular plants in this BioProvince 1465 are endemic. In Europe only the Balkan BioProvince can match such numbers with an estimated 6530 species of which 1754 are endemic. There are several reasons why the Iberian flora is so rich but an important factor was the lack of any permanent ice during the last Ice Age allowing large numbers of ancient Tertiary species to prevail. These now represent a large palaeoendemic element within the flora. 

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Endemic Vascular Plant Flora
Endemic Flora (Andalucia)
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status