Manchurian BioProvince

This BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) broadly relates to Manchuria in northern China. It includes the southeastern part of the Khabarovski Krai including the middle and lower reaches of the Amur River and the Primorski Krai. In Russia it extend to include the Sihote-Akin Mountains on the east and Lake Khanka to the west of these mountains. The border then extends south to the Amur Gulf, the northern part of the Korean Peninsula and includes the basin of the middle and lower reaches of the Yalu River. In the north it includes the southeastern part of the Onon-Argun steppes in Transbaikalia together with the basins of the Uldza and Onon rivers and the foothills of the Khingan Mountains in northeastern Mongolia. In China the western boundary extends from the west of the Great Khingan Mountains east to Shenyank and then cuts across the Yalu River. Much of Manchuria lies on the Precambrian rocks of the North China Craton. The Khingan Mountains in the west are Jurassic and formed by the collision of the North China Craton with the Siberian Craton. Most of the lower-lying areas consist of deep layers of loess formed by wind-blown sandy, sediments created in glaciated parts of the Himalayas, Kunlun Shan and Tien Shan, together with material from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts. The climate has been described as having one of the most extreme seasonal contrasts in the world, ranging from humid, almost tropical heat in the summer to windy, dry, arctic cold in the winter. This relates to the fact that Manchuria is in the transition zone between the great Eurasian continental landmass and the Pacific Ocean and experiences a complete monsoonal wind reversal. The vegetation diversity of the BioProvince is extremely rich comprising some 218 vegetation types, 64 of which are dominated by trees.

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Endemic Vascular Plant Flora
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status