Mesopotamian BioProvince

This BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) is centralized on the Syrian Desert but also encapsulates the ‘Fertile Cresent’ in southeastern Anatolia. Other geographic areas of the BioProvince include the highlands of eastern Edom and Sinai, the Judean Desert, northern Iraq up to the foothills of the Kurdistan Mountains and parts of Khuzestan in southwestern Iran. Built on sandstones and limestones, the area is part of the Arabian Shield, which has apparently been stable and undisturbed since the Cretaceous period. The climate is semi-arid but has been described as haphazard with variable summer temperatures. The dry season lasts for about eight months and there is a short wet season in winter. Many endemic plant taxa are present but the numbers are difficult to quantify. In the Karacadağ area (SE Anatolia), for example, 32 plants are regarded as endemic but this area is considered to have a relatively low level of endemism compared to other parts of Mesopotania.

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Endemic Vascular Plant Flora
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status