Northern European BioProvince

This BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) extends from Norway to the northern Urals. Its southern boundary includes all but the southern tips of Norway and Finland, while in Russia it falls just short of the River Volga. In the north it includes all of the Norwegian islands within the Arctic Circle and in Russia it runs just north of the Arctic Circle. The geology includes rocks of all ages from Archaean gneisses to recent basalts. The climate, which is affected by the Gulf Stream, varies from the west from maritime to maritime subarctic; in the north and central areas it is generally subarctic, while in the east it is mostly subarctic or temperate/continental. Unsurprisingly the flora is comparatively small with only a few endemic species and no endemic genera.

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Vascular Plant Flora
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status