Sakhalin-Hokkaido BioProvince

This BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) includes a large part of Sakhalin Island (south of 51 degrees 30 minutes), a large part of Hokkaido including the area northeast of the Kuromatsunai Depression, and the southern Kuril Islands including Kunashir, Shikotan and Iturup. Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow Mamiya Strait or Strait of Tartary, which often freezes in winter and from Hokkaido by the Soya Strait or Strait of La Pérouse. On Sakhalin Cretaceous limestones occur at Dui on the west coast, while Tertiary conglomerates, sandstones, marls and clays can be found in many places. There are also a number crystalline rock outcrops. Hokkaido has an active volcanic landscape. The climate is known for its cool summers and icy winters with temperatures down to as low as -45°C in the interior of Sakhalin. The flora includes at least 190 endemic vascular plants although many of these have very limited distributions and play only a minor role in vegetation cover.

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Endemic Vascular Plant Flora
Endemic Flora (Apoi Mountain)
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status