Llanos BioProvince

This BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) comprises the Llanos lowland region extending through northern Colombia and western Venezuela. It also extends along the coastal zone of Venezuela from the Paraguana Peninsula west to the start of the Amacuro Delta and incorporates the middle reaches of the Orinoco River. It is a flat or undulating lowland area developed from a huge south-west-north-east-orientated geosyncline between the Andes Coastal Cordillera and the Guayana Shield. It was created as a consequence of the Andean uplifting process. Originally it was flooded by seawater but has gradually been filled by sediments since the Upper Tertiary and these now dominate its superficial geology. The climate is tropical but subject to a seasonal dry period. The rainy season occurs between April and October. The flora is said to comprise about one fifth of the 15,353 species recorded for Venezuela with grasses being by far the most important group and estimated to number about 274 species. The level of endemism, on the other hand, is relatively low and reckoned to be just over 1% of the flora.

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Endemic Vascular Plant Flora
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status