Bengalian BioProvince

This BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) includes the lowlands of the lower courses of the Ganges and Brahmaputra, the lowlands of Orissa north of the Mahanadi River and the tropical parts of Assam, Manipur, Nagaland and Tripura. A major part of this BioProvince is the Bengal Delta, one of the largest in the World. The landward Bengal Basin has evolved in response to the uplifting of the Himalayan Mountains and the outbuilding of a deltaic landmass by major river systems originating in the uplifted zones. There is now a huge thickness of deltaic sediments, which is still continuing to grow. The area has a tropical monsoon-type climate, with hot, wet summers and dry winters, but is still considered to be one of the wettest places in the World. The temperature is consistently warm throughout the year, with relatively little variation, but Bangladesh, in particular, can be affected by devastating cyclones originating over the Bay of Bengal, especially in the periods from April to May and September to November. These are often accompanied by surging waves that can cause major damage. The BioProvince has a diverse flora with many endemic species but just a few endemic genera. About 5000 species have been reccorded in Bangladesh alone.

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Endemic Vascular Plant Flora
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status