Philippinean BioProvince

This BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) comprises the Philippine Achipelago (except Palawan Island) and the Calamian Islands, Basilan Island, the northernmost island in the Sulu Achipelago, the Babuyan Islands and the Batan Islands. The geology is complex and varied but it is largely mountainous with eleven mountain peaks ranging from 1700 to above 2900 m of which the highest is Mount Apo (2929 m) in Mindanae. Like all tropical lands the Philippines have heavy annual rainfall. It occurs over two main periods - one brought by the northeast monsoon occurs from December to March mainly affecting western areas and the other from July to November is mainly as a result of typhoons, and due to their orientation mainly affects Luzon. The flora is very rich with some 30 endemic genera including Embolanthera, Gongrospermum, Nannothelypteris, Podosorus, Psomiocarpa, Tectaridium and Thaumasianthes, and about 68% of species are endemic.

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Endemic Vascular Plant Flora
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status


Medinilla magnifica (Melastomataceae) orginally an endemic epiphyte of Philippine cloud forest but is now a well known horticultural species and has become an invasive species in Hawaii (Copyright © 2010 Peter Martin Rhind).