Upper Gangetic Plains BioProvince

This BioProvince (as defined by Armen Takhtajan) comprises the upper plains of the Ganges extending from the Aravalli Hills and the Yumana River eastwards to the Kosi River where the river bends close to the Rajmahal Hills. The Gangetic Plain is one of the most extensive fluvial plains of the World. Centred on the Ganges River it stretches westward from the Brahmaputra River valley and the Ganges delta to the Indus River valley. It also contains India’s most densely populated areas, and as a consequence, is one of the most intensively farmed areas in the World. The greater part of the plain is made up of alluvial soil deposited by an extensive network of rivers. The climate is dominated by the Asian summer monsoon. The cool, dry winter is followed by summer temperatures that can reach 45°C in June or July. The temperature rise is broken by the onset of the monsoon rains when the daytime maximum temperature will immediately drop 5°C or more. The eastern sections have the heaviest rain and as a result vast areas become swamps or shallow lakes. It becomes progressively drier toward the west where it eventually meets the Thar Desert.

The following accounts for this BioProvince have been written or will be written with particular reference to endemic and locally important species. Accounts available are displayed in green or yellow. Those displayed in red are either in the pipeline or awaiting expert contributions.


Major Ecosystems
Vascular Plant Flora
Bryophyte Flora
Fungus Flora
Lichen Flora
Invertebrate Fauna
Amphibian Fauna
Reptile Fauna
Bird Fauna
Mammal Fauna
Conservation Status